Choosing the right policy depends on identifying the cause of the lack of competitiveness. The causes of poor competitiveness vary between countries and over time.
Improving labour productivity
Labour productivity can be improved by increasing spending on education and training to help develop skills and close any skills gap. However, this is expensive and takes time. Government may also promote a more flexible labour market, such as reducing trade union power, encouraging part-time work, and encouraging new business start-ups. However, this also takes time and the increase in flexibility can reduce worker security and lead to lower wages.
Improving competition in product markets
The level of competition in product markets can also be improved by deregulation to reduce barriers to entry, though this has its limits as some regulation is needed to protect consumers and employees from unfair practices. In addition, privatization of industry is also likely to improve competitiveness. Finally, reducing monopoly power through regulation and competition policy are strategies that can be effective in creating a more dynamic and competitive micro-economy. However, it can be argued that monopoly power helps generate some dynamic efficiency, and the advantages of economies of scale might be lost if monopolies are broken up.
Improving the level of investment
Competition may be increased by investment grants and subsidies, and by tax incentives to encourage new product development. Keeping interest rates low is also a strategy that would encourage investment. In addition, keeping them as stable as possible would increase certainty and reduce risk. However, the danger with too low interest rates is that they could trigger an increase in household spending (C) causing demand pull inflation, which would worsen, rather than improve, competitiveness. The Reserve Bank of INDIA does not directly target INDIA competitiveness. Finally, investment may be stimulated by reducing the interest rate elasticity of investment, which means it is easier to raise interest rates without a negative effect on investment. This could be achieved by investment grants and tax relief on investment.
Creating a stable macro-economic environment
Also central to an effective strategy to improve competitiveness, is strategy inflation under control. This can be achieved through a combination of monetary and fiscal measures. However, higher interest rates can also deter investment, and could damage competitiveness in the long run. A stable exchange rate would also create less uncertainty, and would give firms more confidence to invest.
Improving the functioning of Labor Markets
- Investment in all levels of education and workplace training
- Encouraging inward migration of skilled workers
- Improvements in management quality
- Better motorways, ports, hi-speed rail, new sewers
- The Northern Powerhouse project
- Communications e.g. super-fast broadband, 4G networks
Supporting Enterprise / Entrepreneurship
- Improved access to business finance e.g. for start-ups
- Incentives for business innovation and invention
- Reductions in business red tape
- Maintaining low inflation / price stability to help confidence
- A sustainable and more competitive banking system
- A competitive exchange rate v major trading partners