Characteristics are the features which are necessary to classify the business. Therefore let’s have a look at them.
Business necessarily has to be an economic activity. But what exactly is an economic activity? Any activity that gives a monetary return is an economic activity. For example, if your friend’s father picks you up and drops you at college every day, he is doing this act out of kindness. But if he starts a transportation service of picking up and dropping by charging money then it’s an economic activity.
Production or Trading of Good or Services for Sale
If a business plans on selling a product, it has to either manufacture that product or purchase it and add a profit margin to it and sell it further. Business is interested in every activity that is concerned with the production or purchase of goods for selling, this makes it one of the most important characteristics of a business. Services for sale include transportation, housekeeping, and security. Whereas, goods are mostly consumable items.
Sale or Exchange of Goods and Services
The third and crucial one of the characteristics of business after production or procurement is to sell that product for the money. The way to sell a product or service is by launching it in the market or to offer it for sale. A sale or exchange must take place between the seller and the buyer.
Regularity in Dealings
Business is a repeatable economic activity that generates money. For example, if you sell your old bike and it generates money. Also, it’s an economic activity but is you doing this on a regular basis? No. As it has no regularity in it, it cannot be accepted as a business activity. Similarly, there is a dealer who deals in the purchase and sells of second-hand bikes. For him, it’s a business activity as there is a regularity in his dealing. A single transaction of purchase or sale cannot be classified as a business.
The sole purpose of business is the maximization of profit. It steps into the market with the main objective of earning a profit. For the survival of business in a market, generating profit is extremely necessary. If a business can’t produce profit, it is expected of it to go downhill financially. Therefore the businessman does all the possible tricks to maximize its profits by increasing the volume of sales or decreasing the costs
It is well known “Higher the risks, higher the return”. Business attracts risk. While initiating business it is not guaranteed 100% that the business will be successful. There is an anticipation that there might be demand for its product or service in the market. But the market is always dwindling the subject to risk. The business may even earn profit but the amount of profit earned may vary.
Uncertainty of Returns
Businessmen invest huge capital in their activities to sustain and extract profit from the business. As we discussed the risk above, it is very uncertain as to what amount the profit will be earned. Often there are situations where is no return of profit. There are always chances of losses in the business activities.
The business has to be legal and lawful. Business is an extremely important activity for a country but it is not above the law. Every economic activity has to be within the limits of the law. The country’s legislation puts clauses on the functioning of the business to control its activities.