HRD systems must be designed differently for different organizations. Although the basic principles may remain the same, the specific components, their relationships, the processes involved in each, the phasing, and so on, may differ from one organisation to another organisation.
Designing an integrated HRD system requires a thorough understanding of the principles and models of human resource development and a diagnosis of the organisation culture, existing HRD practices in the organisation, employee perceptions of these practices, and the developmental climate within the organisation.
The following principles related to focus, structure, and functioning should be considered when designing integrated HRD systems.
- Focus on enabling capabilities: The primary purpose of HRD is to help the organisation to increase its “enabling” capabilities. These include development of human resources, development of organisational health, improvement of problem solving capabilities, development of diagnostic ability (so that problems can be located quickly and effectively), and increased employee productivity and commitment.
- Balancing adaptation and change in the organisational culture: Although HRD systems are designed to suit the organisational culture, the role of HRD may be to modify that culture to increase the effectiveness of the organisation. There always has been a controversy between those who believe that HRD should be designed to suit the culture and those who believe that HRD should be able to change the culture. Both positions seem to be extreme. HRD should take the organisation forward, and this can be done only if its design anticipates change and evolution in the future.
- Attention to contextual factors: What is to be included in the HRD systems, how is it to be sub-divided, what designations and titles will be used, and similar issues should be settled after consideration of the various contextual factors of the organisation—its culture and tradition, size, technology, levels of existing skills, available support for the function, availability of outside help and so on.
- Building linkages with other functions: Human resource development systems should be designed to strengthen other functions in the company such as long-range corporate planning, budgeting and finance, marketing, production, and other similar functions. These linkages are extremely important.
- Balancing specialisation and diffusion of the function: Although HRD involves specialised functions, line people should be involved in various aspects of HRD.Action is the sole responsibility of the line people, and HRD should strengthen their roles.
- Ensuring respectability for the function: In many companies, the personnel function does not have much credibility because it is not perceived as a major function within the organisation. It is necessary that HRD be instituted at a very high level in the organisation and that the head of the HRD department is classified as a senior manager. Both the credibility and usefulness of HRD depend on this.
- Balancing differentiation and integration: The human resource development function often includes personnel administration, human resource development and training, and industrial relations. These three functions have distinct identities and requirements and should be differentiated within the HRD department. One person may be responsible for OD, another for training, another for potential appraisal and assessment, etc. At the same time, these roles should be integrated through a variety of mechanisms. For example, inputs from manpower planning should be available to line managers for career planning and HRD units for potential appraisal and development. Data from recruitment should be fed into the human resources information system. If salary administration and placement are handled separately, they should be linked to performance appraisals. Differentiation as well as integration mechanisms are essential if the HRD system is to function well.
- Establishing linkage mechanisms: HRD has linkages with outside systems as well as with internal sub-systems. It is wise to establish specific linkages to be used to manage the system. Standing committees for various purposes (with membership from various parts and levels of the organisation), task groups, and ad hoc committees’ for specific tasks are useful mechanisms.
- Developing monitoring mechanisms: The HRD function is always evolving.