According to Gordon Allport, “An attitude is a mental and neural state of readiness, organized through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individual’s response to all objects and situations with which it is related.”
According to Si P. Robbins – “Attitude is manner, disposition, feeling and position with regard to a person or thing, tendency or orientation especially in the mind.”
Frank Freeman said, “An attitude is a dispositional readiness to respond to certain institutions, persons or objects in a consistent manner which has been learned and has become one’s typical mode of response.”
Thurstone said, “An attitude denotes the sum total of man’s inclinations and feelings, prejudice or bias, pre-conCeived notions, ideas, fears, threats and other any specific topic.”
Anastasi defined attitude as, “A tendency to react favorably or unfavorably towards a designated class of stimuli, such as a national or racial group, a custom or an institution.”
According to N.L. Munn, “Attitudes are learned predispositions towards aspects of our environment. They may be positively or negatively directed towards certain people, service or institution.”
There are the characteristics of attitude;
- Attitudes are the complex combination of things we tend to call personality, beliefs, values, behaviors, and motivations.
- It can fall anywhere along a continuum from very favorable to very unfavorable.
- All people, irrespective of their status or intelligence, hold attitudes.
- An attitude exists in every person’s mind. It helps to define our identity, guide our actions, and influence how we judge people.
- Although the feeling and belief components of attitude are internal to a person, we can view a person’s attitude from his or her resulting behavior.
3 components of attitude are;
- Cognitive Component.
- Affective Component.
- Behavioral Component
There are a number of different factors that can influence how and why attitudes form. These are-
- Social Factors.
- Direct Instruction.
- Personal Experience.
- Educational and Religious Institutions.
- Physical Factors.
- Economic Status and Occupations.
Barriers to Change Attitudes are;
- Prior Commitment.
- Insufficient Information.
- Balance and Consistency.
- Lack of Resources.
- Improper Reward System.
- Resistance to Change