FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS
Financial statement analysis (or financial analysis) is the process of reviewing and analyzing a company’s financial statements to make better economic decisions. These statements include the income statement, balance sheet, statement of cash flows, and a statement of changes in equity. Financial statement analysis is a method or process involving specific techniques for evaluating risks, performance, financial health, and future prospects of an organization.
It is used by a variety of stakeholders, such as credit and equity investors, the government, the public, and decision-makers within the organization. These stakeholders have different interests and apply a variety of different techniques to meet their needs. For example, equity investors are interested in the long-term earnings power of the organization and perhaps the sustainability and growth of dividend payments. Creditors want to ensure the interest and principal is paid on the organizations debt securities (e.g., bonds) when due.
Ratio Analysis is a form of Financial Statement Analysis that is used to obtain a quick indication of a firm’s financial performance in several key areas. The ratios are categorized as Short-term Solvency Ratios, Debt Management Ratios, Asset Management Ratios, Profitability Ratios, and Market Value Ratios.
Ratio Analysis as a tool possesses several important features. The data, which are provided by financial statements, are readily available. The computation of ratios facilitates the comparison of firms which differ in size. Ratios can be used to compare a firm’s financial performance with industry averages. In addition, ratios can be used in a form of trend analysis to identify areas where performance has improved or deteriorated over time.
COMMON SIZE FINANCIAL STATEMENT
A common size financial statement displays all items as percentages of a common base figure. This type of financial statement allows for easy analysis between companies or between time periods of a company. The values on the common size statement are expressed as percentages of a statement component, such as revenue.
COMMON SIZE INCOME STATEMENT
Common size income statement is an income statement in which each account is expressed as a percentage of the value of sales. This type of financial statement can be used to allow for easy analysis between companies or between time periods of a company. Common size income statement analysis allows an analyst to determine how the various components of the income statement affect a company’s profit.
DU PONT ANALYSIS
The Dupont analysis also called the Dupont model is a financial ratio based on the return on equity ratio that is used to analyze a company’s ability to increase its return on equity. In other words, this model breaks down the return on equity ratio to explain how companies can increase their return for investors.
The Dupont analysis looks at three main components of the ROE ratio.
- Profit Margin
- Total Asset Turnover
- Financial Leverage
Based on these three performances measures the model concludes that a company can raise its ROE by maintaining a high profit margin, increasing asset turnover, or leveraging assets more effectively.