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Foreign Investment – Types and Flows

Types of Foreign Investments

Funds from foreign country could be invested in shares, properties, ownership / management or collaboration. Based on this, Foreign Investments are classified as below.

  • Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
  • Foreign Portfolio Investment (FPI)
  • Foreign Institutional Investment (FII)

Details on each of the foreign investment type can be found below :

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

FDI is an investment made by a company or individual who us an entity in one country, in the form of controlling ownership in business interests in another country. FDI could be in the form of either establishing business operations or by entering into joint ventures by mergers and acquisitions, building new facilities etc.

Foreign Portfolio Investment (FPI)

Foreign Portfolio Investment (FPI) is an investment by foreign entities and non-residents in Indian securities including shares, government bonds, corporate bonds, convertible securities, infrastructure securities etc.  The intention is to ensure a controlling interest in India at an investment that is lower than FDI, with flexibility for entry and exit.

Foreign Institutional Investment (FII)

Foreign Portfolio Investment (FPI) is an investment by foreign entities in securities, real property and other investment assets. Investors include mutual fund companies, hedge fund companies etc. The intention is not to take controlling interest, but to diversify portfolio ensuring hedging and to gain high returns with quick entry and exit.

The differences in FPI and FII are mostly in the type of investors and hence the terms FPI and FII are used interchangeably.

The Securities Market in India is regulated by Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). Refer to the article on SEBI to get more information on this topic.

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