Personality in Consumer Behavior: Aspects of Personality & Impact on Consumer Behavior

Perception

Perception in marketing is described as a process by which a consumer identifies, organizes, and interprets information to create meaning.

Key Points

  • Perception is a psychological variable involved in the Purchase Decision Process that is known to influence Consumer Behavior.
  • elective Perception is the process by which individuals perceive what they want to in media messages and disregard the rest.
  • Seymor Smith, a prominent advertising researcher, found evidence for selective perception in advertising research in the early 1960s, and he defined it to be “a procedure by which people let in, or screen out, advertising material they have an opportunity to see or hear.
  • Selective perceptions is categorized under two types: Low level – Perceptual vigilance and High level – Perceptual defense.
  • Perception can be shaped by learning, memory and expectations.

Key Terms

  • Consumer Behavior: The study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs; and the impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society.
  • Purchase Decision Process: The decision-making processes undertaken by consumers in regard to a potential market transaction before, during, and after the purchase of a product or service.
  • Perception: The organization, identification and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment.

Motivation

Motivation is a psychological incentive or reason for doing something.

Key Points

  • Consumer behavior is strongly influenced by many internal and external factors.
  • Internal conditions include demographics, psychographics, personality, motivation, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and feelings.
  • External influences include culture, sub-culture, locality, royalty, ethnicity, family, social class, past experience reference groups, lifestyle, and market mix factors.
  • An individual’s motivation, perception, attitude, and beliefs are considered psychological factors.

Key Terms

  • External, or extrinsic Motivation: The performance of an activity in order to attain an outcome, which then contradicts intrinsic motivation.
  • Intrinsic Motivation: The incentive to undertake an activity based on the expected enjoyment of the activity itself, rather than external benefits that might result.
  • Motivation: The psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal and elicits, controls, and sustains certain goal directed behaviors.

Consumer behavior is strongly influenced by many internal and external factors, including:

  • Internal conditions: demographics, psychographics (lifestyle), personality motivation, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and feelings
  • External influences: culture, sub-culture, locality, royalty, ethnicity, family, social class, past experience reference groups, lifestyle, and market mix factors

An individual’s motivation, perception, attitude, and beliefs are considered psychological factors. Other factors such as income level, personality, occupation, and lifestyle are categorized as personal factors. Motivation is versatile enough that it spans multiple areas, including physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and social.

Motivation may be rooted in a basic human need to minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure, and it may include specific needs such as eating and resting. However, motivation is ultimately linked to emotion.

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

Motivation can originate from oneself (intrinsic) or from other people (extrinsic).

  • Internal, or intrinsic motivation is motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on any external pressure. Intrinsic motivation is based on taking pleasure in an activity rather than working towards an external reward. Intrinsic motivation has been studied since the early 1970s.
  • External, or extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the individual. Common extrinsic motivations are rewards, like money, and the threat of punishment. Competition is extrinsic because it encourages the performer to win, not simply to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity. A cheering crowd and trophies are also extrinsic incentives.

Widely Recognized Motivational Theories

  • Incentive Theory: A reward, tangible or intangible, is presented after the occurrence of a behavior, with the intent of causing the behavior to occur again. Incentive theory in psychology treats motivation and behavior of the individual as though they are influenced by beliefs, such as engaging in activities that are expected to be profitable.
  • Escape-seeking dichotomy model: Escapism and seeking are major factors influencing decision making. Escapism is a need to break away from a daily life routine, whereas seeking is described as the desire to learn or gain some inner benefits through travelling.
  • Drive-reduction theory: Individuals have certain biological drives, such as hunger. As time passes the strength of the drive increases if it is not satisfied (in this case by eating). Upon satisfying a drive, the drive’s strength is reduced.
  • Cognitive dissonance theory: Cognitive dissonance occurs when an individual experiences an inconsistency between their views of the world around them and their own personal feelings and actions.

Learning

Learning in marketing is known as a psychological variable that can significantly affect the purchase decision process for consumers.

Key Points

  • Learning is the process of acquiring new, or modifying existing, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences. This process may involve synthesizing different types of information.
  • Learning is considered to have a psychological influence on consumer behavior, along with motivation and personality, perception, values, beliefs, and attitudes and lifestyle.
  • There are three main categories of learning theory: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism.

Key Terms

  • Learning: The process of acquiring new, or modifying existing, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences. This process may involve synthesizing different types of information.
  • Purchase Decision Process: The decision-making processes undertaken by consumers in regard to a potential market transaction before, during, and after the purchase of a product or service.

In consumer marketing, learning is known as a psychological variable that can significantly affect the purchase decision process for consumers. Learning is the process of acquiring new, or modifying existing, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences. This process may involve synthesizing different types of information. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals, and some machines.

Learning is considered to have a psychological influence on consumer behavior, along with motivation and personality, perception, values, beliefs, and attitudes and lifestyle.

Types of learning include:

  • Simple non-associative learning (habituation and sensitization)
  • Associative learning
  • Imprinting
  • Observational learning
  • Episodic learning
  • Multimedia learning
  • E-learning
  • Rote learning
  • Informal learning
  • Formal learning
  • Tangential learning
  • Dialogic learning

There are three main categories of learning theory: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Behaviorism focuses only on the objectively observable aspects of learning. Cognitive theories look beyond behavior to explain brain-based learning. Constructivism views learning as a process in which the learner actively constructs or builds new ideas or concepts.

Attitude

Attitude is a psychological variable that is known to affect the purchase decision process of consumers.

Key Points

  • An attitude can generally contain a positive or negative evaluation of people, objects, event, activities, ideas, or anything in the environment.
  • Carl Jung ‘s definition of attitude is a “readiness of the psyche to act or react in a certain way”.
  • Attitudes can be difficult to measure because attitudes are ultimately a hypothetical construct that cannot be observed directly.
  • Attitudes can be measured by the use of physiological cues like facial expressions, vocal changes, and other body rate measures.

Key Terms

  • Carl Jung: (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychologist and psychiatrist who founded analytical psychology. Jung proposed and developed the concepts of the extraverted and the introverted personality, archetypes, and the collective unconscious. His work has been influential in psychiatry and in the study of religion, literature, and related fields.
  • Attitude: an expression of favor or disfavor toward a person, place, thing, or event (the attitude object). Prominent psychologist Gordon Allport once described attitudes “the most distinctive and indispensable concept in contemporary social psychology. “

Lifestyle

In consumer marketing, lifestyle is considered a psychological variable known to influence the buyer decision process for consumers.

Key Points

  • Lifestyle is also referred to as a buyer characteristic in the Black Box Model, which shows the interaction of stimuli, consumer characteristics, decision process, and consumer responses.
  • The Black Box Model considers the buyer’s response as a result of a conscious, rational decision process, in which it is assumed that the buyer has recognized the problem.
  • The Black Box Model is related to the Black Box Theory of Behaviorism, where the focus is not set on the processes inside a consumer, but the relation between the stimuli and the response of the consumer.

Key Terms

  • Buyer Decision Process: The decision making processes undertaken by consumers in regard to a potential market transaction before, during, and after the purchase of a product or service.
  • Black Box Model: Shows the interaction of stimuli, consumer characteristics, decision process and consumer responses.

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