Characteristic of Business
The following are the ten important characteristics of a business
- Economic Activity
Business is an economic activity of production and distribution of goods and services. It provides employment opportunities in different sectors like banking, insurance, transport, industries, trade etc. it is an economic activity corned with creation of utilities for the satisfaction of human wants.
It provides a source of income to the society. Business results into generation of employment opportunities thereby leading to growth of the economy. It brings about industrial and economic development of the country.
- Buying and Selling
The basic activity of any business is trading. The business involves buying of raw material, plants and machinery, stationary, property etc. On the other hand, it sells the finished products to the consumers, wholesaler, retailer etc. Business makes available various goods and services to the different sections of the society.
- Continuous Process
Business is not a single time activity. It is a continuous process of production and distribution of goods and services. A single transaction of trade cannot be termed as a business. A business should be conducted regularly in order to grow and gain regular returns.
Business should continuously involve in research and developmental activities to gain competitive advantage. A continuous improvement strategy helps to increase profitability of the business firm.
- Profit Motive
Profit is an indicator of success and failure of business. It is the difference between income and expenses of the business. The primary goal of a business is usually to obtain the highest possible level of profit through the production and sale of goods and services. It is a return on investment. Profit acts as a driving force behind all business activities.
Profit is required for survival, growth and expansion of the business. It is clear that every business operates to earn profit. Business has many goals but profit making is the primary goal of every business. It is required to create economic growth.
- Risk and Uncertainties
Risk is defined as the effect of uncertainty arising on the objectives of the business. Risk is associated with every business. Business is exposed to two types of risk, Insurable and Non-insurable. Insurable risk is predictable.
- Creative and Dynamic
Modern business is creative and dynamic in nature. Business firm has to come out with creative ideas, approaches and concepts for production and distribution of goods and services. It means to bring things in fresh, new and inventive way.
One has to be innovative because the business operates under constantly changing economic, social and technological environment. Business should also come out with new products to satisfy the growing needs of the consumers.
- Customer Satisfaction
The phase of business has changed from traditional concept to modern concept. Now a day, business adopts a consumer-oriented approach. Customer satisfaction is the ultimate aim of all economic activities.
Modern business believes in satisfying the customers by providing quality product at a reasonable price. It emphasize not only on profit but also on customer satisfaction. Consumers are satisfied only when they get real value for their purchase.
The purpose of the business is to create and retain the customers. The ability to identify and satisfy the customers is the prime ingredient for the business success.
- Social Activity
Business is a socio-economic activity. Both business and society are interdependent. Modern business runs in the area of social responsibility.
Business has some responsibility towards the society and in turn it needs the support of various social groups like investors, employees, customers, creditors etc. by making goods available to various sections of the society, business performs an important social function and meets social needs. Business needs support of different section of the society for its proper functioning.
- Government Control
Business organizations are subject to government control. They have to follow certain rules and regulations enacted by the government. Government ensures that the business is conducted for social good by keeping effective supervision and control by enacting and amending laws and rules from time to time.
Some important acts framed by the government include:
(i) The Competition Act, 2002
(ii) Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999
(iii) The Environment Act, 1986
(iv) Indian Companies Act, 1956
(v) Consumer protection Act
- Optimum utilization of resources
Business facilitates optimum utilization of countries material and non-material resources and achieves economic progress. The scarce resources are brought to its fullest use for concentrating economic wealth and satisfying the needs and wants of the consumers.