Capital Structure

Capital Structure is the mix of the long-term sources of funds used by a firm. It is made up of debt and equity securities and refers to permanent financing of a firm. It is composed of long-term debt, prefer­ence share capital and shareholders’ funds.

The capital structure is how a firm finances its overall operations and growth by using different sources of funds. Debt comes in the form of bond issues or long-term notes payable, while equity is classified as common stock, preferred stock or retained earnings. Short-term debt such as working capital requirements is also considered to be part of the capital structure.

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Capital structure can be a mixture of a firm’s long-term debt, short-term debt, common equity and preferred equity. A company’s proportion of short- and long-term debt is considered when analyzing capital structure. When analysts refer to capital structure, they are most likely referring to a firm’s debt-to-equity (D/E) ratio, which provides insight into how risky a company is. Usually, a company that is heavily financed by debt has a more aggressive capital structure and therefore poses greater risk to investors. This risk, however, may be the primary source of the firm’s growth.

Debt vs. Equity

Debt is one of the two main ways companies can raise capital in the capital markets. Companies like to issue debt because of the tax advantages. Interest payments are tax deductible. Debt also allows a company or business to retain ownership, unlike equity. Additionally, in times of low interest rates, debt is abundant and easy to access.

Equity is more expensive than debt, especially when interest rates are low. However, unlike debt, equity does not need to be paid back if earnings decline. On the other hand, equity represents a claim on the future earnings of the company as a part owner.

Importance of Capital Structure

Decisions relating to financing the assets of a firm are very crucial in every business and the finance manager is often caught in the dilemma of what the optimum proportion of debt and equity should be. As a general rule there should be a proper mix of debt and equity capital in financing the firm’s assets. Capital structure is usually designed to serve the interest of the equity shareholders.

Therefore instead of collecting the entire fund from shareholders a portion of long term fund may be raised as loan in the form of debenture or bond by paying a fixed annual charge. Though these payments are considered as expenses to an entity, such method of financing is adopted to serve the interest of the ordinary share­holders in a better way.

The importance of designing a proper capital structure is explained below

(i) Value Maximization

Capital structure maximizes the market value of a firm, i.e. in a firm having a properly designed capital structure the aggregate value of the claims and ownership interests of the shareholders are maximized.

(ii) Cost Minimization

Capital structure minimizes the firm’s cost of capital or cost of financing. By determining a proper mix of fund sources, a firm can keep the overall cost of capital to the lowest.

(iii) Increase in Share Price

Capital structure maximizes the company’s market price of share by increas­ing earnings per share of the ordinary shareholders. It also increases dividend receipt of the shareholders.

(iv) Investment Opportunity

Capital structure increases the ability of the company to find new wealth- creating investment opportunities. With proper capital gearing it also increases the confidence of sup­pliers of debt.

(v) Growth of the Country

Capital structure increases the country’s rate of investment and growth by increasing the firm’s opportunity to engage in future wealth-creating investments.

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