1. Personality View of Individual Organisation Relationship:
The employees who join the organisation have their personal goals which they expect to achieve through their membership of the organisation. But, there is inherent conflict between organisational and individual goals. Elton Mayo recognized for the first time that the formal organisation properties did not satisfy individual needs and they formed informal groups.
Dissatisfaction among employees being the main reason for the formation of informal group. Douglas M. McGregor also recognized the conflict between these two. According to him, “the main reason of the conflict is that the people behave according to the assumptions of theory Y, but organisations are designed according to the assumptions of theory X.”
The most important view point comes from Chris Argyris who feels that satisfaction of organisational members is also an end in itself. His Immaturity- maturity theory says that human beings want to move from the level of immaturity to the level of maturity. He visualized the individual as moving over time from the passive, dependent and subordinate status of an infant to the active, independent and superior status of an adult.
The structure of the formal organisation is not compatible with the needs of human personality for full development. The basic features of organisation create situations that are detrimental to personality development. Thus, maturity of the individual comes into conflict with the basic properties of formal organisation.
2. Viewpoint of Organisation Proponents:
According to organisation proponents, every individual does not work for self actualization as advocated by personality advocates rather money plays an important role in motivating the individuals. No doubt, a few individuals in the organisation may have the strong urge for self development, self actualization and self direction, but mostly people have a tendency to follow orders and instructions from the superiors.
Moreover, money is a means for satisfying higher needs also. It may bring social status and even self actualization to certain people. In practice, people depend on jobs only for monetary benefits, and they satisfy their psychological needs from other organisations and institutions like social clubs, religious or charitable organisations etc. Such people accommodate to the demands of the organisation without much frustration or conflict.
According to G. Strauss, organisations do not demand much from the individuals, only reasonable performance in return for the economic benefits offered to them. Since the organisation is giving employment to the individual, this expectation is but logical. Thus, the source of conflict may not be within the organisation.
3. Dubin’s Middle Path View:
Robert Dubin advocates a middle path view by suggesting that neither individual personality nor organisational property is responsible for the conflicts but the cause of conflict lies in their mutual adaptation. Since an individual participates in a large number of organisations simultaneously, he cannot deeply involved in all the organisations at the same time. Thus, lack of involvement with some organisations may be the real cause of conflict between organisation and individual.
Robert Dubin, says that individuals and organisations can survive happily even if in congruency between individual goals and organisational requirements exists. Those who are not primarily interested in the work place may just fulfill their minimum production requirements and get economic rewards to sustain themselves. They may seek ‘self realization’ at some other institutions.