Project Management Process Groups
PMBOK officially recognizes 47 typical project management processes, which can be organized into five main process groups, collectively known as IPECC.
- Initiating Group: Includes processes such as developing the project charter, identifying stakeholders, and controlling stakeholder engagement.
- Planning Group: Everything having to do with planning, such as determining the budget, creating the WBS, and defining scope.
- Executing Group: Processes involved with executing the project plan, including managing communications, conducting procurements, and managing the project team.
- Controlling Group: Processes that track and oversee progress, including those that control scope, cost, and quality.
- Closing Group: Everything necessary to complete a project, such as closing a project phase or closing procurements.
The 10 Project Management Knowledge Areas
Those project management processes can also be organized into ten knowledge areas:
1. Project Communication Management
Processes that disseminate information among team members and external stakeholders, ensuring that information is exchanged continuously, and more importantly, understood by all concerned.
2. Project Cost Management
Processes regarding budgets, funding, spending allocation, and timing. Cost management is dependent on activity estimates from time management.
3. Project Human Resources Management
Processes involving managing your project team, like sourcing, hiring, assigning roles, professional development, and fostering team spirit.
4. Project Integration Management
Processes necessary to define, consolidate, and coordinate all the other processes and project management activities. These processes are key to setting expectations and keeping communication lines open.
5. Project Procurement Management
Processes for planning, budgeting, and purchasing resources — whether physical or informational — in order to complete work.
6. Project Quality Management
Processes that define the success of a project or criteria for considering the project complete. Quality is managed at every stage of the project from planning to the continuous performance improvement.
7. Project Risk Management
Processes involved with preparing for and managing unexpected risks.
8. Project Scope Management
Processes managing the scope or parameters of a project. These processes ensure that the scope is well-defined and that all requirements remain within the scope limits.
9. Project Stakeholder Management
Processes involved with identifying who will be impacted by the project and managing relationships with them, including strategies for collaborating with stakeholders on project direction and execution.
10. Project Time Management
Processes needed to ensure the project is completed before the specified deadline.