Decision making is an integral part of every aspect of life. This also applies to organizations. It is one of the key factors that pave the way for its success or failure. Every manager is required to execute decisions at various levels of the management cycle beginning from planning to control. It is the effectiveness and quality of those decisions that determine how successful a manager is.
Without decision making, different managerial functions such as planning, organizing, directing, controlling, and staffing cannot be conducted. Decision making is a cumulative and consultative process, and should support organizational growth.
The main function of every management is making the right decisions and seeing them through to their logical end through execution. Every management decision also affects employee morale and performance, ultimately influencing the overall business performance. The importance of decision making in management is immense, as the business policy and strategies adopted ultimately affects the company’s output and performance.
Nature of Decision Making
The following is the nature of decision-making
Decision-making is a goal-oriented process. It aims at achieving certain specific goals of the organisation.
Decision-making is a selection process in which best alternative course of action is chosen from the given alternative courses of action.
Decision-making is a continuous process because a manager is required to take decisions continuously for different activities.
Art as Well as Science
Decision-making is considered both an art and a science.
Responsibilities of Managers
Decision-making is the responsibility of managers at different levels of management.
Positive as Well as Negative
Decision-making can be both positive and negative i.e. it may be positive (to perform certain activities) or negative (not to perform certain activities).
Future Course of Action
Decisions are made for future course of action based on the basis of past experiences and present conditions.
Decision Making Process
Decision making is the process of making choices by identifying a decision, gathering information, and assessing alternative resolutions.
Using a step-by-step decision-making process can help you make more deliberate, thoughtful decisions by organizing relevant information and defining alternatives. This approach increases the chances that you will choose the most satisfying alternative possible.
Steps in Decision Making
Step 1: Identify the decision
You realize that you need to make a decision. Try to clearly define the nature of the decision you must make. This first step is very important.
Step 2: Gather relevant information
Collect some pertinent information before you make your decision: what information is needed, the best sources of information, and how to get it. This step involves both internal and external “work.” Some information is internal: you’ll seek it through a process of self-assessment. Other information is external: you’ll find it online, in books, from other people, and from other sources.
Step 3: Identify the alternatives
As you collect information, you will probably identify several possible paths of action, or alternatives. You can also use your imagination and additional information to construct new alternatives. In this step, you will list all possible and desirable alternatives.
Step 4: Weigh the evidence
Draw on your information and emotions to imagine what it would be like if you carried out each of the alternatives to the end. Evaluate whether the need identified in Step 1 would be met or resolved through the use of each alternative. As you go through this difficult internal process, you’ll begin to favor certain alternatives: those that seem to have a higher potential for reaching your goal. Finally, place the alternatives in a priority order, based upon your own value system.
Step 5: Choose among alternatives
Once you have weighed all the evidence, you are ready to select the alternative that seems to be best one for you. You may even choose a combination of alternatives. Your choice in Step 5 may very likely be the same or similar to the alternative you placed at the top of your list at the end of Step 4.
Step 6: Take action
You’re now ready to take some positive action by beginning to implement the alternative you chose in Step 5.
Step 7: Review your decision & its consequences
In this final step, consider the results of your decision and evaluate whether or not it has resolved the need you identified in Step 1. If the decision has not met the identified need, you may want to repeat certain steps of the process to make a new decision. For example, you might want to gather more detailed or somewhat different information or explore additional alternatives.