Organizing and Leading Elements of Organizing Division of Work

Basic Elements of Organizing

  1. Designing Jobs

Job design is the determination of an individual’s work-related responsibilities. The most common form is job specialization. Because of various drawbacks to job specialization, managers have experimented with job rotation, job enlargement, job enrichment, the job characteristics approach, and work teams as alternatives.

  1. Grouping Jobs

After jobs are designed, they are grouped into departments. The most common bases for departmentalization are function, product, customer, and location. Each has its own unique advantages and disadvantages. Large organizations employ multiple bases of departmentalization at different levels.

  1. Establishing Reporting Relationships

Establishing reporting relationships starts with clarifying the chain of command. The span of management partially dictates whether the organization is relatively tall or flat. In recent years there has been a trend toward flatter organizations. Several situational factors influence the ideal span.

  1. Distributing Authority

Distributing authority starts with delegation. Delegation is the process by which the manager assigns a portion of his or her total workload to others. Systematic delegation throughout the organization is decentralization. Centralization involves keeping power and authority at the top of the organization. Several factors influence the appropriate degree of decentralization.

  1. Coordinating Activities

Coordination is the process of linking the activities of the various departments of the organization. Pooled, sequential, or reciprocal interdependence among departments is a primary reason for coordination. Managers can draw on several techniques to help achieve coordination.

  1. Differentiating Between Positions

A line position is a position in the direct chain of command that is responsible for the achievement of an organization’s goals. In contrast, a staff position provides expertise, advice, and support for line positions. Administrative intensity is the degree to which managerial positions are concentrated in staff positions.

DIVISION OF WORK

The division of work is the course of tasks assigned to, and completed by, a group of workers in order to increase efficiency. Division of work, which is also known as division of labor, is the breaking down of a job so as to have a number of different tasks that make up the whole. This means that for every one job, there can be any number of processes that must occur for the job to be complete.

It states that every work should be divided into the smallest possible part and each such part is to be performed by an individual person. Instead of assigning the whole work to an individual, it’s better to assign one task to one person. Before assigning the task to anyone it must be assured that he posses the required knowledge, skill, capability and will to perform the task effectively and efficiently. If the same task is performed by a person again and again he gains specialization in that task and can perform with greater ease and minimizes wastage of resources and time.

Principles of Division of Work

The principle of ‘Division of Work’ means to divide a given activity or work into small pieces or parts so that each part is handled with great ease and efficiency.

This principle states that every work should be divided into the smallest possible part and each such part is to be performed by an individual person (laborer). Instead of assigning the whole work to an individual, it’s better to assign one task to one person. Before assigning the task to anyone it must be assured that he posses the required knowledge, skill, capability and will to perform the task effectively and efficiently. If the same task is performed by a person again and again he gains specialization in that task and can perform with greater ease and minimizes wastage of resources and time.

Fayol has emphasized on this issue because specialization and minimization of wastage is a key to success for each and every organization. He was of the view that every work should be divided into the smallest possible part and then is to be assigned to an individual to gain success and specialization. This principle also guarantees specialization, efficiency and maximum production with minimum time and least efforts.

Positive impacts of this principle:

  • Specialization,
  • Minimization of wastage,
  • Improved efficiency.





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