Concept of IGST, CGST, SGST and its calculation
To determine whether Central Goods & Services Tax (CGST), State Goods & Services Tax (SGST) or Integrated Goods & Services Tax (IGST) will be applicable in a taxable transaction, it is important to first know if the transaction is an Intra State or an Inter-State supply.
- Intra-State supply of goods or services is when the location of the supplier and the place of supply i.e., location of the buyer are in the same state. In Intra-State transactions, a seller has to collect both CGST and SGST from the buyer. The CGST gets deposited with Central Government and SGST gets deposited with State Government.
- Inter-State supply of goods or services is when the location of the supplier and the place of supply are in different states. Also, in cases of export or import of goods or services or when the supply of goods or services is made to or by a SEZ unit, the transaction is assumed to be Inter-State. In an Inter-State transaction, a seller has to collect IGST from the buyer.
Central Goods and Services Tax (CGST)
Under GST, CGST is a tax levied on Intra State supplies of both goods and services by the Central Government and will be governed by the CGST Act. SGST will also be levied on the same Intra State supply but will be governed by the State Government.
This implies that both the Central and the State governments will agree on combining their levies with an appropriate proportion for revenue sharing between them. However, it is clearly mentioned in Section 8 of the GST Act that the taxes be levied on all Intra-State supplies of goods and/or services but the rate of tax shall not be exceeding 14%, each.
State Goods and Services Tax (SGST)
Under GST, SGST is a tax levied on Intra State supplies of both goods and services by the State Government and will be governed by the SGST Act. As explained above, CGST will also be levied on the same Intra State supply but will be governed by the Central Government.
Note: Any tax liability obtained under SGST can be set off against SGST or IGST input tax credit only.
An example for CGST and SGST:
Let’s suppose Rajesh is a dealer in Maharashtra who sold goods to Anand in Maharashtra worth Rs. 10,000. The GST rate is 18% comprising of CGST rate of 9% and SGST rate of 9%. In such case, the dealer collects Rs. 1800 of which Rs. 900 will go to the Central Government and Rs. 900 will go to the Maharashtra Government.
Integrated Goods and Services Tax (IGST)
Under GST, IGST is a tax levied on all Inter-State supplies of goods and/or services and will be governed by the IGST Act. IGST will be applicable on any supply of goods and/or services in both cases of import into India and export from India.
Note: Under IGST,
- Exports would be zero-rated.
- Tax will be shared between the Central and State Government.
An example for IGST:
Consider that a businessman Rajesh from Maharashtra had sold goods to Anand from Gujarat worth Rs. 1,00,000. The GST rate is 18% comprised of 18% IGST. In such case, the dealer has to charge Rs. 18,000 as IGST. This IGST will go to the Centre.