A Group is basically an assemblage of people. It can be understood as a collection of individuals (two or more), who come together and interact with each other, so as to achieve the objectives of the organization. These are the foundation of an organization.
Characteristics of Groups
(i) Size: To form a group, it must be having at least two members. Practically, the number of group members ranges from 15 to 20. The more the members in the group, the more complex it is to manage.
(ii) Goals: Every group has certain goals, that are the reasons for its existence.
(iii) Norms: A group has certain rules, for interacting with the group members.
(iv) Structure: It has a structure, based on the roles and positions held by the members.
(v) Roles: Every member of a group has certain roles and responsibilities, which are assigned, by the group leader.
(vi) Interaction: The interaction between the group members can occur in several ways, i.e. face to face, telephonic, in writing or in any other manner.
(vii) Collective Identity: A group is an aggregation of individuals, which are separately called as members, and collectively called as a group.
Reasons for Group Formation
- Personal Characteristics: Individuals with similar beliefs, attitudes and values are more likely to form groups.
- Opportunity for interaction: If the employees of an organization, are given an opportunity to interact with one another, they find that they have many things similar, which also creates a group.
- Interest and goals: When individuals share common interest and goals, it requires cooperation and coordination for its achievement, which also results in the formation of groups.
- Influence and power: Last but not the least, a group has more influence and power, as compared to an individual, which also promotes its formation.
In general, groups are created out of individual need satisfaction, which can be personal, social or economical. Meaning that the members need to associate with the group in order to fulfil their basic needs.
Types of Groups
Group dynamics deals with the attitudes and behavioral patterns of a group. Group dynamics concern how groups are formed, what is their structure and which processes are followed in their functioning. Thus, it is concerned with the interactions and forces operating between groups.
Group dynamics is relevant to groups of all kinds – both formal and informal. If the UPA government has set up Group of Ministers for every governance issue, the Supreme Court of India has 27 Group of Judges committees overseeing all manner of non-judicial work in the apex court. In an organizational setting, the term groups are a very common and the study of groups and group dynamics is an important area of study.