Meaning of Organization
An entrepreneur organizes various factors of production like land, labour, capital, machinery, etc. for channelizing them into productive activities. The product finally reaches consumers through various agencies. Business activities are divided into various functions, these functions are assigned to different individuals.
Various individual efforts must lead to the achievement of common business goals. Organization is the structural framework of duties and responsibilities required of personnel in performing various functions with a view to achieve business goals through organization. Management tries to combine various business activities to accomplish predetermined goals.
Present business system is very complex. The unit must be run efficiently to stay in the competitive world of business. Various jobs are to be performed by persons most suitable for them. First of all various activities should be grouped into different functions. The authority and responsibility is fixed at various levels. All efforts should be made to co-ordinate different activities for running the units efficiently so that cost of production may be reduced and profitability of the unit may be increased.
Louis Allen, “Organization is the process of identifying and grouping work to be performed, defining and delegating responsibility and authority and establishing relationships for the purpose of enabling people to work most effectively together in accomplishing objectives.” In the words of Allen, organization is an instrument for achieving organizational goals. The work of each and every person is defined and authority and responsibility is fixed for accomplishing the same.
Wheeler, “Internal organization is the structural framework of duties and responsibilities required of personnel in performing various functions within the company………… It is essentially a blue print for action resulting in a mechanism for carrying out function to achieve the goals set up by company management”. In Wheeler’s view, organization is a process of fixing duties and responsibilities of persons in an enterprise so that business goals are achieved.
Koontz and O’Donnell, ‘The establishment of authority relationships with provision for co-ordination between them, both vertically and horizontally in the enterprise structure.” These authors view organization as a coordinating point among various persons in the business.
Oliver Sheldon, “Organization is the process so combining the work which individuals or groups have to perform with the facilities necessary for its execution, that the duties so performed provide the best channels for the efficient, systematic, positive and coordinated application of the available effort”. Organization helps in efficient utilization of resources by dividing the duties of various persons.
Spriegel, “In its broadest sense organisation refers to the relationship between the various factors present in a given endeavor. Factory organisation concerns itself primarily with the internal relationships within the factory such as responsibilities of personnel, arrangement and grouping of machines and material control. From the standpoint of the enterprise as a whole, organisation is the structural relationship between the various factors in the enterprise”.
Spriegel has given a wide definition of the organization. He has described it as the relationship among persons, factors in the enterprise. All factors of production are coordinated in order to achieve Organisational objectives.
George Terry, “Organizing is the establishing of effective authority relationships among selected work, persons, and work places in order for the group to work together efficiently”. According to Terry organisation is the creation of relationship among persons and work so that it may be carried on in a better and efficient way.
C.H. Northcott, ‘The arrangement by which tasks are assigned to men and women so that their individual efforts contribute effectively to some more or less clearly defined purpose for which they have been brought together”. According to Northcott the purpose of organisation is to co-ordinate the activities of various individuals working in the organisation for the attainment of enterprise goals.
L.H. Haney, “Organisation is a harmonious adjustment of specialised parts for accomplishment of some common purpose or purposes”. Organisation is the adjustment of various activities for the attainment of common goals.