A matrix represents a collection of numbers arranged in an order of rows and columns. It is necessary to enclose the elements of a matrix in parentheses or brackets.
A matrix with 9 elements is shown below.
This Matrix [M] has 3 rows and 3 columns. Each element of matrix [M] can be referred to by its row and column number. For example, a23=6
Order of a Matrix:
The order of a matrix is defined in terms of its number of rows and columns.
Order of a matrix = No. of rows ×No. of columns
Therefore Matrix [M] is a matrix of order 3 × 3.
Transpose of a Matrix :
The transpose [M]T of an m x n matrix [M] is the n x m matrix obtained by interchanging the rows and columns of [M].
if A= [aij] mxn , then AT = [bij] nxm where bij = aji
Properties of transpose of a matrix:
- (AT)T= A
- (A+B)T= AT + BT
- (AB)T= BTAT
Singular and Non-singular Matrix:
- Singular Matrix: A square matrix is said to be singular matrix if its determinant is zero i.e. |A|=0
- Nonsingular Matrix: A square matrix is said to be non-singular matrix if its determinant is non-zero.