Types of Organization: Sole Proprietorship, Partnership
It is important that the business owner seriously considers the different forms of business organization—types such as sole proprietorship, partnership, and corporation. Which organizational form is most appropriate can be influenced by tax issues, legal issues, financial concerns, and personal concerns. For the purpose of this overview, basic information is presented to establish a general impression of business organization.
- Sole Proprietorship
A Sole Proprietorship consists of one individual doing business. Sole Proprietorships are the most numerous form of business organization in the United States, however they account for little in the way of aggregate business receipts.
Advantage of Sole Proprietorship
- Ease of formation and dissolution. Establishing a sole proprietorship can be as simple as printing up business cards or hanging a sign announcing the business. Taking work as a contract carpenter or freelance photographer, for example, can establish a sole proprietorship. Likewise, a sole proprietorship is equally easy to dissolve.
- Typically, there are low start-up costs and low operational overhead.
- Ownership of all profits.
- Sole Proprietorships are typically subject to fewer regulations.
- No corporate income taxes. Any income realized by a sole proprietorship is declared on the owner’s individual income tax return.
Disadvantage of Sole Proprietorship
- Unlimited liability. Owners who organize their business as a sole proprietorship are personally responsible for the obligations of the business, including actions of any employee representing the business.
- Limited life. In most cases, if a business owner dies, the business dies as well.
- It may be difficult for an individual to raise capital. It’s common for funding to be in the form of personal savings or personal loans.
A Partnership consists of two or more individuals in business together. Partnerships may be as small as mom and pop type operations, or as large as some of the big legal or accounting firms that may have dozens of partners. There are different types of partnerships—general partnership, limited partnership, and limited liability partnership—the basic differences stemming around the degree of personal liability and management control.
Advantage of Partnership
- There is clear potential for the enhancement of value resulting from two or more individuals combining strengths.
- Partnerships are relatively easy to form, however, considerable thought should be put into developing a partnership agreement at the point of formation.
- Partnerships may be subject to fewer regulations than corporations.
- There is stronger potential of access to greater amounts of capital.
- No corporate income taxes. Partnerships declare income by filing a partnership income tax return. Yet the partnership pays no taxes when this partnership tax return is filed. Rather, the individual partners declare their pro-rata share of the net income of the partnership on their individual income tax returns and pay taxes at the individual income tax rate.
Disadvantage of Partnership
- Unlimited liability. General partners are individually responsible for the obligations of the business, creating personal risk.
- Limited life. A partnership may end upon the withdrawal or death of a partner.
- There is a real possibility of disputes or conflicts between partners which could lead to dissolving the partnership. This scenario enforces the need of a partnership agreement.