Soil pollution refers to an undesirable decrease in the quality of soil, either by man-induced sources or natural sources or by both.
Soil is vital not only for the growth of plants and growing food but also cultivating raw materials for agro-based industries. Health soil is a significant prerequisite for human survival.
Causes of Soil Erosion
- Deforestation at large scale
- Decrease in soil microorganisms
- Excessive use of chemical fertilizers
- Excessive use of irrigation
- Lack of humus content
- Improper and unscientific rotation of crops
Soil pollution leads to many harmful consequences such as decrease in agricultural production; reduced nitrogen fixation; reduction in biodiversity; silting of tanks, lakes and reservoirs; diseases and deaths of consumers in the food chain due to use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, etc.
Soil Pollution Control
- Adoption of soil-friendly agricultural practices.
- Use of compost manures in place of chemical fertilizers; Use of bio-fertilizers and natural pesticides help in minimizing the usage of chemical fertilizers and pesticides
- Scientific rotation of crop to increase soil fertility.
- Proper disposal of industrial and urban solid and liquid wastes.
- Planting of trees to check soil erosion in slopes and mountainous regions.
- Controlled grazing.
- Reduction in the heaps of garbage and refuse.
- The principles of three R’s − Recycle, Reuse, and Reduce− help in minimizing generation of solid waste.
- Formulation and effective implementation of stringent pollution control legislation.
- Improved sewage and sanitation system in urban areas.