The components or functions of production management are as follows:
- Selection of Product and Design
Production management first selects the right product for production. Then it selects the right design for the product. Care must be taken while selecting the product and design because the survival and success of the company depend on it. The product must be selected only after detailed evaluation of all the other alternative products. After selecting the right product, the right design must be selected. The design must be according to the customers’ requirements. It must give the customers maximum value at the lowest cost. So, production management must use techniques such as value engineering and value analysis.
- Selection of Production Process
Production management must select the right production process. They must decide about the type of technology, machines, material handling system, etc.
- Selecting Right Production Capacity
Production management must select the right production capacity to match the demand for the product. This is because more or less capacity will create problems. The production manager must plan the capacity for both short and long term’s production. He must use break-even analysis for capacity planning.
- Production Planning
Production management includes production planning. Here, the production manager decides about the routing and scheduling.
Routing means deciding the path of work and the sequence of operations. The main objective of routing is to find out the best and most economical sequence of operations to be followed in the manufacturing process. Routing ensures a smooth flow of work.
Scheduling means to decide when to start and when to complete a particular production activity.
- Production Control
Production management also includes production control. The manager has to monitor and control the production. He has to find out whether the actual production is done as per plans or not. He has to compare actual production with the plans and finds out the deviations. He then takes necessary steps to correct these deviations.
- Quality and Cost Control
Production management also includes quality and cost control. Quality and Cost Control are given a lot of importance in today’s competitive world. Customers all over the world want good-quality products at cheapest prices. To satisfy this demand of consumers, the production manager must continuously improve the quality of his products. Along with this, he must also take essential steps to reduce the cost of his products.
- Inventory Control
Production management also includes inventory control. The production manager must monitor the level of inventories. There must be neither over stocking nor under stocking of inventories.
If there is an overstocking, then the working capital will be blocked, and the materials may be spoiled, wasted or misused.
If there is an understocking, then production will not take place as per schedule, and deliveries will be affected.
- Maintenance and Replacement of Machines
Production management ensures proper maintenance and replacement of machines and equipments. The production manager must have an efficient system for continuous inspection (routine checks), cleaning, oiling, maintenance and replacement of machines, equipments, spare parts, etc. This prevents breakdown of machines and avoids production halts.