Models of Strategic HRM
The defining features of HRM is popularly known as models. These models provide analytical framework for studying HRM. They provide characterization of HRM that establishes variables and relationship to be researched. Four most common models are :
- The Fombrun Model
- The Harvard Model
- The Guest Model and
- The Warwick Model
All these models serve the following purposes:
- They provide an analytical framework for studying HRM for example, situational factors, stakeholders, strategic choice levels, competence etc.
- They validate certain HRM practices and provide distinctiveness to HRM practices.
- They provide a characterization of HRM that establishes variables and relationship to be researched.
- They help to discover and understand the world for explaining the nature and significance of key HR practices.
- THE FOMBRUN MODEL
This is the model of HRM. It emphasizes four functions of management and their interrelatedness Selection, Appraisal, Development and Rewards. This model is incomplete as it focuses on only four functions of HRM and ignore all other environmental and contingency factors. But, this model is simple and can serve as a heuristic framework for explaining the nature and significance of HR activities.
- THE HARVARD MODEL
This model consists six critical components of HRM namely stake holders interests, situational factors, HRM policy choices, HR out comes, long term consequences and a feedback loop through.
- THE GUEST MODEL
This model was developed by David Guest in 1997. This model emphasizes on the assumption that HR manager has specific strategies to begin with, which demand certain practices and when executed will result in outcomes. These out comes include behavioral performance related and financial rewards. The model emphasizes the logical sequence of six components : HR strategy, HR practices, HR outcomes, Behavioral outcomes, Performance results and financial consequences.
- THE WARWICK MODEL
This model was developed by two researchers, Hendry and Pettigrew of University of Warwick (hence the name Warwick model). Like other human resource management models, the Warwick proposition centers around five elements-
- Outer context (macro environmental forces)
- Inner context (firm specific or micro environmental forces)
- Business strategy content
- HRM context
- HRM content
The strength of this model is that it identifies and classifies important environment influences on HRM. This model takes cognizance of business strategy and HR practices, the external and internal content, in which these activities take place and process by which such changes take place including transactions between changes in both external content and internal content.
THE 5-P’S MODEL OF HRM
- Philosophy: Expressed in statements defining business values and culture. It expresses how to treat and value people.
- Policies: Expressed as shared values and guidelines. Policies establish guidelines for action on people related business issues and HR programs.
- Programs: Articulated as human resource strategy. These coordinate efforts to facilitate change to address major people related business issues.
- Practices: For leadership managerial and operational role practices motivate needed role behaviors.