The load-distance method is a mathematical model used to evaluate locations based on proximity factors. The objective is to select a location that minimizes the total weighted loads moving into and out of the facility. The distance between two points is expressed by assigning the points to grid coordinates on a map. An alternative approach is to use time rather than distance.
Suppose that a new warehouse is to be located to serve Delhi. It will receive inbound shipments from several suppliers, including one in Ghaziabad. If the new warehouse were located at Gurgaon, what would be the distance between the two facilities? If shipments travel by truck, the distance depends on the highway system and the specific route taken. Computer software is available for calculating the actual mileage between any two locations in the same county. However, for load-distance method, a rough calculation that is either Euclidean or rectilinear distance measure may be used. Euclidean distance is the straight-line distance, or shortest possible path, between two points.
Centre of Gravity
Centre of gravity is based primarily on cost considerations. This method can be used to assist managers in balancing cost and service objectives. The centre of gravity method takes into account the locations of plants and markets, the volume of goods moved, and transportation costs in arriving at the best location for a single intermediate warehouse.
The centre of gravity is defined to be the location that minimizes the weighted distance between the warehouse and its supply and distribution points, where the distance is weighted by the number of tones supplied or consumed. The first step in this procedure is to place the locations on a coordinate system. The origin of the coordinate system and scale used are arbitrary, just as long as the relative distances are correctly represented. This can be easily done by placing a grid over an ordinary map. The centre of gravity is determined by the formula.