The objectives and functions of packaging have clearly demonstrated the importance of packaging in modern marketing setting. To get all these benefits, the packaging must be certainly attractive, protective, economical, convenient and adjustable. Experts opine that the following points to be fulfilled by a packaging to be called as ‘good’ packaging.
Therefore, the requisites of good packaging are:
- It should protect the contents
- It should be attractive
- It should bestow convenience
- It should guarantee economy
- It should assure adjustability
- It should be pollution free
- It should be informative
Types of Packages
When one speaks of types of packaging, there can be three types namely primary, secondary and shipping.
Primary packaging is basically done for protecting the quality of the product and protection against possible effects caused by exposure. Much depends on the type of product its form namely, Solid or liquid, solids are packed in polyethylene paper bags, hard boards, bottles both glass and plastic.
The basic idea is to protect or preserve the basic ingredients. Say, a shampoo can be packed in sachets, pouches, plastic bottles, so in the case with other liquids. Tetra-packing is done in case of soft-drinks, juice, and oil and so on.
Secondary packaging serves for providing quantitative convenience of the buyers and sellers. Thus Shampoo Sachets may be in straps of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 and so on. The bottles may be 10, or 12, or 144 units put to together. This is done for additional protection plus meeting the consumer’s dealers, convenient for exchange purpose. It also helps in storage.
Shipping packaging is the final packaging mainly for transportation and stocking purposes on wholesale basis. Thus, fruit juice boxes (tetra pack) may be put in cartons of 50, 100, and 200 and so on.
The care is taken to see that it helps in convenient handling of cartons in transportation and warehousing while loading and unloading to cause least damages. Here, the materials used are rugged and providing cushion in handling, storing and transportation.
The materials used for primary, secondary and shipment packages differ very much. A continuous research is going on to do away with conventional materials.
Labelling is another significant means of product identification like branding and packaging. Labelling the act of attaching or tagging labels. A label is anything may be a piece of paper, printed statement, imprinted metal, leather which is either a part of a package or attached to it, indicating value of contents of price of product name and place of producers.
It carries verbal information about the product, producer or such useful information to be beneficial to the user. Thus, a label is an informative tag, wrapper or seal attached to a product or product’s package.
The Purposes of Labelling
To bring home the product features
A label goes on describing the product specialties which makes the product a quick-mover. It gives its correct use. Thus, bottle containing poison, if not labelled, it fails to tell about its contents. Wrong labelling does more harm than no labelling at all.
To facilitate the exchange process
As good many competitive products are available in a given product range, label helps in avoiding the unwanted confusion. This is of special importance in case of drugs and chemicals where even spelling mistakes prove fatal to the users. That is why; druggists and chemists are having qualified pharmacists in the pharmacies.
To encourage self-service
A lable is a strong sales tool that encourages self-service operations. If the customers are supplied with necessary information of the contents of the package or the container, as its contents, weight, use, price, taxes, and instructions and so on, consumers can pick the package of their choice from shop shelves. Thus, labelling has a special role to play in self-selling units.
A label may be descriptive, informative or grade designating or a combination of these. A ‘descriptive’ label describes the contents of the package or the ingredients of the product. Thus, a descriptive label on a cane of pineapple describes the contents by size, weight, number of slices, syrup cups and the number of servings.
An ‘informative’ label includes detailed description with emphasis on how the product is made? How to use it? How to care for it? In order to drive maximum satisfaction. A ‘grade’ label designates customary or regulated standards. Thus, a pack of ghee or honey might have ‘Ag-mark’ grading, certificates as A, B, or C.
Product related services
Generally, a product is surrounded by various services that make it easier for the consumer to use, pay for and maintain the product, in addition to its branding, packing and labelling. These include the product support services, credit granted guarantees and warrantees given and after-sale services extended.