Work study is the investigation, by means of a consistent system of the work done in an organization in order to attain the best utilisation of resources i.e. Materials, Machines, Men and Money. All the technologies and management systems are related with productivity.
Work study is one of the basic techniques of improving productivity. In order to resolve this aspect, work study aims:
(i) To have optimum utilization of resources i.e., 4 Ms.
(ii) To analyse the work in order to achieve work simplification and thereby improving productivity of the system.
(iii) To set time standards for various jobs.
(iv) To evaluate the work content through work measurement.
Role of Work Study:
- To eliminate unnecessary human movements.
- To standardise the method of doing a work.
- To determine the standard time for doing a task.
- To a systematic investigation of all factors.
- To minimise the unit cost of production.
- To minimise the material movement, and operator’s movement.
- To utilise facilities such as man, machine and materials most effectively.
Advantages of Work Study:
- Work study ensures higher productivity.
- Better service to customers.
- Better working conditions with less fatigue.
- Harmonious employer-employee relation.
- Higher wages to workers.
- Job satisfaction and job security to workers.
- Fast delivery schedule.
- Reduction in unit cost of production.
- Quality products to consumers.
- Uniform production flow.
Techniques of Work Study:
Basically, there are two techniques:
Method study and work measurement.
Thus, work study is the term used to embrace the techniques of Method Study and Work Measurement which are used to ensure the best utilization of manpower and material resources in carrying out specified activity.
The sequential order of the correct procedure to be adopted for having effective or purpose-oriented results of method study include the following:
(i) Select the work/procedure to be analysed.
(ii) Record all the relevant information related with the existing work system with the help of various recording devices or techniques.
(iii) Make critical examination of collected data/facts.
(iv) Develop and improve the method which is economical and practical after giving due consideration to the alternative method possible.
(v) Install the new selected method with proper instructions.
(vi) Maintain the latest standards of methods through periodic verification etc.
The logical order of correct procedure to be adopted for having effective results of work measurement includes the followings:
(i) Divide the selected procedure into small work elements.
(ii) By direct observations record the relevant information regarding the various work elements.
(iii) In the light of relevant information examine the work critically.
(iv) Measure the work content in the terms of time of the work elements involved in method being adopted.
(v) Define and design the new selected method.
(vi) Finally convert the work content time in standard time.
Objectives of Method Study:
Some important objectives of method study are:
(1) Better design of plant equipment and buildings.
(2) Less fatigue or workers by avoiding unnecessary movements of manpower.
(3) Better working conditions and environment for workers/employees.
(4) To have more effective utilisation of materials, machines and manpower and money.
(5) Better Product quality.
(6) Efficient and fast material handling equipment.
(7) Leads to standardisation, rationalisation, simplification and specialisation.
(8) Efficient planning of the section.
(9) Streamlined working procedures.
Objectives of Work Measurement:
Effective planning and control of production, distribution and administration can not be achieved unless these are based on facts. One of the most important of these facts is the time required for job completion which can be obtained by motion study or work measurement.
Other objectives of work measurement are as follows:
(1) When two alternative methods which seem equally advantageous, one which requires less time for completion of the job (i.e. faster) can be established.
(2) The man power required for a job or new plant can be determined on the basis of accurate knowledge of the amount of work that has to be done so it helps in manpower economy.
(3) Work measurement data provides reliable basis to decide equipment.
(4) Provides requisite information for effective production planning and improving efficiency of the system.
(5) Provides basis for fair and reliable incentive schemes.
(6) Decides realistic labour budgeting and provides a basis for standard costing system.
Advantages of Work Study:
(1) It is direct means of improving productivity.
(2) It results in uniform and improved production flow.
(3) It reduces the manufacturing cost.
(4) With its help fast and accurate delivery dates are possible.
(5) It provides better service and consumer satisfaction.
(6) It improves employee-employer relations.
(7) It provides job satisfaction and job security to workers.
(8) Better working conditions are possible for workers.
(9) It is most important tool of analysis and can help in providing better wages to workers on scientific basis.
(10) Most accurate method and yet provides a sound basis for production planning, control and incentives for man power.
(11) Everyone concerned with industries is benefited from it such as worker, consumer and management of the unit.