Performance feedback is a communications process. It should be ongoing meaning as adjustments are made based on the information exchanged between manager and team member. There should be regular follow up dialogue to determine success. Feedback is designed to note where things are going right and where they are going wrong. This means that leaders may need to be patient as new habits get developed and the learning curves for new skills are overcome.
Performance feedback is useless unless business leaders have standards for performance, meaning they should have expectations of reasonable achievement. For example, a car dealership may set the standard as 10 sales per month. An accounting office might set the standard of meeting with three clients per day. Without these standards, a manager is unable to take a baseline level of productivity and make adjustments.
Every athlete uses performance feedback to improve performance. This area of study has expanded how athletes use coaches, camera recordings, bio-feedback and other tools to get the right feedback. A tennis player and his coach might use a tracker implanted in his racket to get swing speeds while hitting a ball. This information is then used with statistics of accuracy and the coaches experience in seeing the small details in a swing that affect performance. The ultimate goal is to improve accuracy and consistency to win more matches.
The feedback definition in management is not very different. The goal of performance feedback is to improve skills and generate more revenues. When a team member gets feedback on how his word choices may negatively affect customers with new ideas on how to convey the same message, he is put in a position to make more customers happy. Ironically, the change will probably reduce consistent conflict he experiences with customers improving his overall job satisfaction.
It’s hard to change something if you are unaware of what you are doing wrong. This is most true with behavioral adjustments but holds true for detail-oriented tasks and processes as well. Someone who is taking too long to complete a client intake form might not realize a very simple trick on his keyboard that toggles him from screen to screen saving him minutes per intake form. The old adage, “You don’t know what you don’t know,” is resolved with performance feedback. People learn what gaps they have and are able to adjust saving time, money and often frustration.
In this counselling the counsellor plays an active role as it is regarded as a means of helping people how to learn to solve their own problems. This type of counselling is otherwise known as counsellor-centred counselling. Because in this counselling the counsellor does everything himself i.e. analysis, synthesis, diagnosis, prognosis, prescription and follow-up.
Features of Directive Counselling:
- During the interview attention is focused upon a particular problem and possibilities for its solution.
- During the interview the counsellor plays a more active role than the client or pupil.
- The pupil or client makes the decision, but the counsellor does all that he can to get the counselee or client makes a decision in keeping with his diagnosis.
- The counsellor tries to direct the thinking of the counsellee or client by informing, explaining, interpreting and advising him.
Steps in Directive Counselling:
The following steps are followed in this type of counselling:
In this step data is collected from a variety of sources for an adequate understanding of the pupil.
This step implies organizing and summarising the data to find out the assets, liabilities, adjustments and mal-adjustments of the pupil.
Formulating conclusions regarding the nature and causes of the problems expressed by the pupils is the major concern of this step.
This step implies predicting the future development of the problem of client or pupil.
This step indicates taking steps by the counsellor with the pupil to bring about adjustment in life.
This step implies helping and determining the effectiveness of the counselling provided to the pupil or client.
In this type of counselling the counselee or client or pupil, not the counsellor is the pivot of the counselling process. He plays an active role and this type of counselling is a growing process. In this counselling the goal is the independence and integration of the client rather than the solution of the problem. In this counselling process the counsellee comes to the counsellor with a problem. The counsellor establishes rapport with the counsellee based on mutual trust, acceptance and understanding.
The counsellee provides all information about his problems. The counsellor assists him to analyze and synthesise, diagnose his difficulties, predict the future development of his problems, take a decision about the solution of his problems; and analyse the strengths and consequences of his solutions before taking a final decision. Since the counsellee is given full freedom to talk about his problems and work out a solution, this technique is also called the “permissive” counselling.
Steps in Non-Directive Counselling:
- The pupil or individual comes for help as the counselee.
- The counsellor defines the situation by indicating that he doesn’t have the answer but he is able to provide a place and an atmosphere in which the client or pupil can think of the answers or solutions to his problems.
- The counsellor is friendly, interested and encourages free expression of feeling regarding the problem of the individual.
- The counsellor tries to understand the feeling of the individual or client.
- The counsellor accepts and recognizes the positive as well as the negative feelings.
- The period of release or free expression is followed by a gradual development of insight.
- As the client recognizes and accepts emotionally as well as intellectually his real attitudes and desires, he perceives the decisions that he must make and the possible courses of action open to him.
- Positive steps towards the solution of the problem situation begin to occur.
- A decreased need for help is felt and the client is the one who decides to end the contract.
Eclectic counselling is a combination of directive and non-directive technique depending upon the situational factors. This approach in counselling is best characterised by its freedom to the counsellor to use whatever procedures or techniques seem to be the most appropriate to any particular time for any particular client. This counselling is one where one who is willing to utilize any procedures which hold promise even though their theoretical bases differed markedly.
Competence of the Counsellor in Eclectic Counselling:
Eclectic counselling assumes high level competence and should never be used as a rationalization by the counsellor for indiscriminate use or neglect of particular procedures advocated in other philosophies. The competent eclectic counsellor is well acquainted with all other major theories of philosophies in counselling and uses this knowledge in choosing techniques and in the establishment of a positive working relationship with the client. A rejection of any philosophical framework is justified by the counsellor if he had a better way to achieve the task in hand.
The counsellor must be aware of the fact that problems differ from individual to individual. The counsellee or the pupil must be accepted as he is and attempts be made to understand him. Each problem must be treated as unique. All pre-conceived notions of dealing with all the counsellee’s personal problems in the same way should be discarded. The task of the counsellor is very difficult.
He has to shift and interpret all the matter that is available about the individual. The worker should take care in working with the pupils to be warm, co-ordinal, friendly, responsive and understanding but at the same time will be impersonal and objective. To be impersonal and objective, however he needs not to be cold, indifferent or not interested.
Features/Characteristics of Eclectic Counselling:
- Methods of counselling may change from counselee to counselee or even with the same client from time to time.
- Flexibility is the key note of this counselling.
- Freedom of choice and expression is open to both, the counsellor and the client.
- The client and the philosophical framework are adjusted to serve the purposes of the relationship.
- Experience of mutual confidence and faith in the relationship are basic.
- Feelings of comfort are essential.