Convertibility of rupee
In 1991-92 the GOI adopted a dual exchange rate system under which the official rate of exchange was controlled and the market rate (or the black-market rate) of exchange was free to move or fluctuate according to forces of supply and demand.
Current account convertibility
All current transactions of India with other countries in respect of trade (merchandise), services such as education, travel, medical expenses, etc. and ‘invisibles’ such as remittances are fully met through full convertibility of the Rupee into other currencies. The Rupee can be used to buy other currencies and other countries can buy Indian rupee without limit.
Capital Account Convertibility
Under CAC any Indian or Indian company is free to convert Indian financial assets into foreign financial assets and reconvert foreign financial assets into rupees at the prevailing market rate of exchange. This means that CAC removes all the restrains on international flows on India’s capital account.
Benefits of CAC:
The potential benefits from the scheme are:
- Availability of large funds to supplement domestic resources and thereby promote faster economic growth.
- Improved access to international financial markets and reduction of the cost of capital.
- Incentive for Indians to acquire and hold international securities and assets.
- Improvement (strengthening) of the financial system in the context of global competition.
Main Provisions Under the System of CAC:
(a) Indian companies would be allowed to issue foreign currency denominated bonds to local investors, to invest in such bonds and deposits to issue Global Depository Receipts (GDRs) without RBI or GOI approval and to go for external commercial borrowings subject to certain limits.
(b) Indian residents would be permitted to have foreign currency denominated deposits with banks in India, to make transfers of financial capital to other countries within certain limits, and to take loans from non-relatives and others up to a ceiling of $1 million.
(c) Indian banks would be permitted to borrow from overseas markets for short-term and long-term up to certain limits, to invest in overseas money markets, to accept deposits and extend loans denominated in foreign currency. Such facilities would also be available to non- bank financial institutions and financial intermediaries like insurance companies, investment companies and mutual funds.
(d) All India financial institutions which fulfill certain regulatory and prudential requirements would be allowed to participate in foreign exchange market along with banks which are the only Authorised Dealers (ADs) now. At a later stage, certain select Non-Bank Financial Companies (NBFCs) would also be permitted to act as Ads in foreign exchange markets.
(e) Banks and financial institutions would be permitted to operate in domestic and international markets. They would be allowed to buy and sell gold freely and offer gold denominated deposits and loans.
Preconditions for CAC:
According to the Tarapore Committee four preconditions have to be fulfilled to ensure full currency convertibility:
(i) Reducing Fiscal Deficit:
Fiscal deficit should be reduced to 3.5% of GDP.
(ii) Reducing Public Debt:
The GOI should also set up a Consolidated Sinking Fund (CSF) to reduce its debt.
(iii) Fixing Inflation Target:
The GOI should fix the annual inflation target between 3% to 5%. This is called mandated inflation target. The GOI should also give full freedom to the RBI to use monetary weapons to achieve the inflation target.
(iv) Strengthening the Indian Financial Sector:
For this, four conditions are to be satisfied:
(a) Full deregulation of interest rates,
(b) Reduction of gross Non-Performing Assets (NPAs) to 5%,
(c) Reduction of average effective CRR to 3% and
(d) Liquidation of weak banks or their merger with other strong banks.
Apart from these, the Tarapore Committee also recommended that:
(a) The RBI should fix an exchange rate band of 5% around real effective exchange rate and should intervene only when the Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) is outside the band.
(b) The size of the current account deficit should be within manageable limits and the debt service ratio should be gradually reduced from the present 25% to 20% of the export earnings.
(c) To meet import bill and to service external debt, forex reserves should be adequate and range between $22 billion and $32 billion.
(d) The GOI should remove all restrictions on the movement of gold.
Disadvantages of CAC:
(i) Contagion Effect:
The Asian financial crisis of 1997 makes it abundantly clear that financial crisis from one country may be easily transmitted to other countries having convertible currencies. Any adverse development in overseas market will affect India’s economy equally adversely as was amply shown in the recent world recession of 2008-09.
A convertible currency shows greater fluctuation than an inconvertible one and thus gives greater scope for destabilising speculation. This creates uncertainty and reduces the volume of trade.
(iii) Outflow of Funds:
Indians will have a tendency to buy more assets abroad and India may become a debtor nation like the USA since it may develop a tendency to spend beyond its means.
(iv) No Ceiling on External Debt:
Finally, there will be no ceiling on India’s external debt since the GOI knowing well that rupee can now be used for debt serving will borrow without limits.