Orientation refers to a process through which the individual is introduced to the new environment. Orientation programs take place in institutions and organizations in order to familiarize the new employees to the organizational setting. It is important to bear in mind that although the person is socialized in the societal setting, through orientation the individual is introduced to a subcultural setting.
This can be well understood by the orientation programs that take place in universities. The students are not only introduced to the courses that they will be following but also to the university subculture.
Socialization refers to a process through which the individual becomes familiarized to the society and social group. In every society from the beginning of human history the socialization took place. However, the socialization process differs from one society to another mainly because of the values that each society upholds. For instance, while a child in a tribal society may be taught specific values, these may be completely different from that of another society.
Socialization process begins from childhood itself. Hence, the primary socialization agent becomes the immediate family of the child. This process not only focuses on the conscious learning process that the child undergoes as the parents teach the child what is correct and what is wrong. It also includes the unconscious learning process as well where the child internalizes what he notices in the world around him. There are many social agents that assist this process such as the family, school, religion, etc. These agents internalize the values, mores, laws, accepted behavior, traditions and customs in the young child.
- Anticipatory socialization: This stage occurs before new hires join the organization. Through interacting with representatives of the company (e.g., recruiters, managers), new hires develop expectations about the company and the job prior to organizational entry.
- Encounter: When new employees begin a new job, they start to learn about job tasks and receive training. Managers can exert their influence by helping new employees understand their roles and duties. Also, by understanding the stresses and issues that newcomers experience, managers can help cultivate a high-quality work relationship with newcomers.
- Settling in: New employees begin to feel comfortable with their job demands and social relationships. They will be interested in the company’s evaluation of their performance and in learning about potential career opportunities within the company.
|Context||Orientation takes place in specific places such as institutions, organizations, etc.||Socialization takes place through all social institutions.|
|Intention||Orientation intends to introduce the individual to the setting so that he begins to be aware of the rules, regulations, accepted the behavior, ethics, etc.||The intention is to familiarize the individual with the societal values, norms, mores, customs, etc. in order to internalize the socially accepted behaviors into the individual.|
|Inception||Orientation begins when the individual enters the setting.||Socialization begins from childhood itself.|