Job Analysis is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job duties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job. Job Analysis is a process where judgements are made about data collected on a job.
The Job; not the person An important concept of Job Analysis is that the analysis is conducted of the Job, not the person. While Job Analysis data may be collected from incumbents through interviews or questionnaires, the product of the analysis is a description or specifications of the job, not a description of the person.
Purpose of Job Analysis
The purpose of Job Analysis is to establish and document the ‘job relatedness‘ of employment procedures such as training, selection, compensation, and performance appraisal.
Determining Training Needs
Job Analysis can be used in training/”needs assessment” to identify or develop:
- training content
- assessment tests to measure effectiveness of training
- equipment to be used in delivering the training
- methods of training (i.e., small group, computer-based, video, classroom…)
Job Analysis can be used in compensation to identify or determine:
- skill levels
- compensable job factors
- work environment (e.g., hazards; attention; physical effort)
- responsibilities (e.g., fiscal; supervisory)
- required level of education (indirectly related to salary level)
Job Analysis can be used in selection procedures to identify or develop:
- job duties that should be included in advertisements of vacant positions;
- appropriate salary level for the position to help determine what salary should be offered to a candidate;
- minimum requirements (education and/or experience) for screening applicants;
- interview questions;
- selection tests/instruments (e.g., written tests; oral tests; job simulations);
- applicant appraisal/evaluation forms;
- orientation materials for applicants/new hires
Job Analysis can be used in performance review to identify or develop:
- goals and objectives
- performance standards
- evaluation criteria
- length of probationary periods
- duties to be evaluated
Methods of Job Analysis
Several methods exist that may be used individually or in combination. These include:
- review of job classification systems
- incumbent interviews
- supervisor interviews
- expert panels
- structured questionnaires
- task inventories
- check lists
- open-ended questionnaires
- incumbent work logs
A typical method of Job Analysis would be to give the incumbent a simple questionnaire to identify job duties, responsibilities, equipment used, work relationships, and work environment. The completed questionnaire would then be used to assist the Job Analyst who would then conduct an interview of the incumbent(s). A draft of the identified job duties, responsibilities, equipment, relationships, and work environment would be reviewed with the supervisor for accuracy. The Job Analyst would then prepare a job description and/or job specifications.
The method that you may use in Job Analysis will depend on practical concerns such as type of job, number of jobs, number of incumbents, and location of jobs.
What Aspects of a Job Are Analyzed?
Job Analysis should collect information on the following areas:
- Duties and Tasks The basic unit of a job is the performance of specific tasks and duties. Information to be collected about these items may include: frequency, duration, effort, skill, complexity, equipment, standards, etc.
- Environment This may have a significant impact on the physical requirements to be able to perform a job. The work environment may include unpleasant conditions such as offensive odors and temperature extremes. There may also be definite risks to the incumbent such as noxious fumes, radioactive substances, hostile and aggressive people, and dangerous explosives.
- Tools and Equipment Some duties and tasks are performed using specific equipment and tools. Equipment may include protective clothing. These items need to be specified in a Job Analysis.
- Relationships Supervision given and received. Relationships with internal or external people.
- Requirements The knowledges, skills, and abilities (KSA’s) required to perform the job. While an incumbent may have higher KSA’s than those required for the job, a Job Analysis typically only states the minimum requirements to perform the job.