Training and Development
In simple terms, training and development refers to the imparting of specific skills, abilities and knowledge to an employee. A formal definition of training development is a it is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employee’s attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. The need for training & development is determined by the employee’s performance deficiency.
The need for Training and Development
Before we say that technology is responsible for increased need of training inputs to employees, it is important to understand that there are other factors too that contribute to the latter. Training is also necessary for the individual development and progress of the employee, which motivates him to work for a certain organisation apart from just money. We also require training update employees of the market trends, the change in the employment policies and other things.
The following are the two biggest factors that contribute to the increased need to training and development in organisations:
(i) Change: The word change encapsulates almost everything. It is one of the biggest factors that contribute to the need of training and development. There is in fact a direct relationship between the two. Change leads to the need for training and development and training and development leads to individual and organisational change, and the cycle goes on and on. More specifically it is the technology that is driving the need; changing the way how businesses function, compete and deliver.
(ii) Development: It is again one the strong reasons for training and development becoming all the more important. Money is not the sole motivator at work and this is especially very true for the 21st century. People who work with organisations seek more than just employment out of their work; they look at holistic development of self. Spirituality and self awareness for example are gaining momentum world over. People seek happiness at jobs which may not be possible unless an individual is aware of the self. At ford, for example, an individual can enrol himself / herself in a course on ‘self awareness’, which apparently seems inconsequential to ones performance at work but contributes to the spiritual well being of an individual which is all the more important.
Nature of Training
- Training is a must in every organization. The alternative to systematic training is training through ‘trial and error’, which is more costly, time-consuming and nerve-raking.
- Expenditure on training is not an expense but an investment in human resource development. It yields attractive returns in the form of higher productivity and employee satisfaction.
- Training has become more important these days because of rapid changes in technologies, environment, working ways, and employees’ aspirations from their jobs, and management styles. Further, effective training can result in increased competitiveness of the organization, and greater employee satisfaction and career development.
- Training matches individual’s abilities with job and organizational requirements. It turns new employees into productive insiders, contributing their best efforts towards higher productivity and profitability, quicker organizational growth and change.
- Training involves learning and learning follows a learning curve. It takes place in bursts and plateaus. In the beginning trainees take time to pick up, then pick up learning with zeal and then plateau (relax) for sometime, and then sees a sudden spurt and again a plateau and sudden spurt.
Scope of training:
The scope of training depends upon the categories of employees to be trained. As we all know that training is a continuous process and not only needed for the newly selected personnel but also for the existing personnel at all levels of the organisation.
Prof. Yoder listed the following five groups of employees who need continuous training:
- Rank And File: i.e., employees who have no administrative or supervising work.
- Supervisory Employees: i.e., the first line foreman, supervisor and their immediate supervisors.
- Staff: i.e. specialised personnel such as technical and professional persons attached to the line organisation as advisors.
- Middle Management: i.e., all the managerial personnel holding positions between line supervisors and the top management.
- Top Executives: i.e., all executives who hold major responsibility for the overall planning and control.
Training Principles and Techniques:
According to Pigors and Myres, training principles and techniques include:
(a) The trainee must want to learn. His motivation to improve his job performance or to learn a new skill must be high.
(b) There should be some reward at the conclusion of training viz., promotion or a better job.
(c) The trainer should ask the trainee as to whether he is learning the job correctly. This is known as feedback.
(d) Training is best accomplished through learning by doing rather than by listening.
(e) The material to be learned should be developed in stages.
(f) When the trainee gives correct response, he has learned the job.
(a) First of all the instructor must be prepared. He should know both his job and how to teach it. On the basis of job analysis and job description, various operations should be planned. In order to avoid delays, everything must be ready before training starts.
(b) The next step is the preparation of the trainee. The fact that the employee is learning the job for the first time should be kept in mind. The importance of the job, its relationship with the other jobs and importance of rapid and effective learning should be explained.
(c) The operations should then be presented carefully and patiently. The sequence of the entire job is explained by taking one point at a time.
(d) The performance of the trainee should then be tried by asking him to explain each step and do the practical.
(e) The employee is then put on the job. In the follow up action, his performance should be frequently checked and questions should be encouraged.