Concept of job Evaluation
In simple words, job evaluation is the rating of jobs in an organization. This is the process of establishing the value or worth of jobs in a job hierarchy. It attempts to compare the relative intrinsic value or worth of jobs within an organization. Thus, job evaluation is a comparative process.
Below are given some important definitions of job evaluation
According to the International Labour Office (ILO) “Job evaluation is an attempt to determine and compare the demands which the normal performance of a particular job makes on normal workers, without taking into account the individual abilities or performance of the workers concerned”.
The British Institute of Management defines job evaluation as “the process of analysis and assessment of jobs to ascertain reliably their negative worth using the assessment as the basis for a balanced wage structure”. In the words of Kimball and Kimball “Job evaluation is an effort to determine the relative value of every job in a plant to determine what the fair basic wage for such a job should be”.
Wendell French defines job evaluation as “a process of determining the relative worth of the various jobs within the organization, so that differential wages may be paid to jobs of different worth. The relative worth of a job means relative value produced. The variables which are assumed to be related to value produced are such factors as responsibility, skill, effort and working conditions”.
Now, we may define job evaluation as a process used to establish the relative worth of jobs in a job hierarchy. This is important to note that job evaluation is ranking of job, not job holder. Job holders are rated through performance appraisal. Job evaluation assumes normal performance of the job by a worker. Thus, the process ignores individual abilities of the job holder.
Job evaluation provides basis for developing job hierarchy and fixing a pay structure. It must be remembered that job evaluation is about relationships and not absolutes. That is why job evaluation cannot be the sole determining factor for deciding pay structures.
External factors like labour market conditions, collective bargaining and individual differences do also affect the levels of wages it, organizations. Nonetheless, job evaluation can certainly provide an objective standard from which modifications can be made in fixing wage structure.
The starting point to job evaluation is job analysis. No job can be evaluated unless and until it is analyzed.
Objectives of Job Evaluation
The main objective of job evaluation is to determine relative worth of different jobs in an organization to serve as a basis for developing equitable salary structure. States an ILO Report the aim of the majority of systems of job evaluation is to establish, on agreed logical basis, the relative values of different jobs in a given plant or machinery i.e. it aims at determining the relative worth of a job. The principle upon which all job evaluation schemes are based is that of describing and assessing the value of all jobs in the firms in terms of a number of factors, the relative importance of which varies from job to job.
The objectives of job evaluation, to put in a more orderly manner are to:-
1. Provide a standard procedure for determining the relative worth of each job in a plant.
2. Determine equitable wage differentials between different jobs in the organization.
3. Eliminate wage inequalities.
4. Ensure that like wages are paid to all qualified employees for like work.
5. Form a basis for fixing incentives and different bonus plans.
6. Serve as a useful reference for setting individual grievances regarding wage rates.
7. Provide information for work organisation, employees’ selection, placement, training and numerous other similar problems.
8. Provide a benchmark for making career planning for the employees in the organization.