Training and Development

At the enterprise level, employee training and development are main areas of human resource development. The efficiency of an organisation depends directly on the capability and talent of its personnel, and how motivated they are. Capability of a person depends on his ability to work and the  type of training  he receives. While his personal capability is evaluated through proper selection procedure, his training is taken care of by the organisation after he has been employed by the organisation. After employee have been selected for various positions in an   organisation, training them   for those specific tasks to which they have been assigned assumes great importance.  It is true in many organisations that before an employee is fitted into a harmonious  working relationship  with other  employees, he is given adequate training. Training is the act of increasing the     knowledge and skills of an  employee for performing a particular job. The major outcome of training  is learning.  A trainee  learn  new habits, refined skills and useful knowledge during  the  training  that  helps him improve performance.  Training  enables an  employee to do his present job more efficiently and prepare himself for a higher level job.

Training, Education, Learning and Development


Training is  an  act  of  increasing knowledge, skill and  attitude of  an employee for improving his performance on the job.

Training   is concerned with imparting specific skill for doing particular job. For example, a clerk on typing. It is task-oriented activity. It is for job­ related purpose and short-term.


Education is   concerned  with   increasing  general   knowledge  and understanding  of  an  employee’s total  environment. Education is directed more towards the future of an individual .It prepares him for future challenges of life,shapes his career and grooms him for social responsibilities.


Learning is the process of accumulation of knowledge,skills and attitudes by whatever means. Learning   is a broad one which includes both training and education. Learning is observable modification of behaviour as a result of some experience. Learning may be through experience, reading, observation, discussions, electronic media including internet,  experimentation,  facing the new challenges, travel and exploration, etc.


Development  has a broader  meaning.  Its aim is to grow  or improve  the overall  personality  of an  individual.   It is continuous   process  and  is on  the initiative  from  individual.   Development  is  to  meet  an   individual’s   future needs.  Efforts  tow ards  development   often  depend   on  personal   drive  and ambition.   It   helps   individual’s    in   the   progress    towards    maturity    and actualisation  of  their  potential  capacities.  Development    is   whole   process   by   which   employee   learns, grows, improves  his  abilities   to  perform   variety   of  roles  within   and  outside   the organisation.  He  acquires  socially  desirable  attitudes and values.

Difference between Training and Development

Training Development
Short term process. Long term process.
Knowledge and skills for a specific purpose. For overall development.
Primary related to technical skills learning. Related to managerial, behavioral and attitude development.
Training is a reactive process to meet current need. Development is a reactive to meet future needs.
From management management-external motivation. From individual himself-internal motivation.
Develops specific job related skills. Develops total personality.
Training is for non-managerial personnel. Development is for managerial personnel.

Need for Training

  • Employees selected for a job  might  lack  the qualifications  required to  perform    the  job  In  some cases,   the past experience , attitudes   and   behaviour   patterns     of  experienced   personnel   might        not be appropriate to  the  new  organisation.   Remedial  training    should   be  given  to  such people  to match,  the  needs   of the  organisation.   New  employees  need   to  provided orientation training to make   them  familiar   with the job  and  the  organisation.
  • Rapid technological innovations impacting the workplace have made it necessary for people to constantly update their knowledge and skills.
  • Training is necessary to preparing employees for higher-level jobs (promotion).
  • Existing employees require refresh training so as to keep abreast of the latest development in job operations.  In the phase of rapid technological changes , this is an absolute necessity.
  • Training is necessary when a person moves from one job to another (transfer).
  • Training is necessary to make employees mobile and versatile. They can be placed on various jobs depending on organizational needs.
  • Training is needed for employees to gain acceptance from peers.
  • Training is needed to make employees more productive and useful in the long run.

Types of Training

Training is required for several purposes. Accordingly, training programmes may be of the following types:
1. Orientation Training
In orientation training, new hires get a first hand view of what the company stands for, how the work is carried out and how to get along with colleagues. In short, they learn the specific ways of doing things in proper manner. When a new employee is from different country and culture, this initial training is important in helping new employees adjust in the company.

2. Job Training
It refers to the training provided with a view to increase the knowledge and skills of an employee for improving performance on-the-Job. Employees may be taught the correct methods of handling equipment and machines used in a job. Such training helps to reduce accidents, waste and inefficiency in the performance of the job.

3. Safety Training

Training provided to minimize accidents and damage to machinery is known as safety training, It involves giving instructions in the use of safety devices and in safety consciousness.

4. Promotional Training
It Involves training of existing employees to enable them to perform higher level jobs .Employees with potential are selected and they are given training before their promotion, so that they do not find it difficult to shoulder the higher responsibilities of the new positions to which they are promoted.

5. Refresher Training

Rapid changes in technology may force companies to go in for this kind of training. When existing techniques become obsolete due to the development of better techniques, employees have to be trained in the use of new methods and techniques. By organizing short-term courses which incorporate the latest developments in a particular field, the company may keep its employees up-to-date and ready to take on emerging challenges. It is conducted at regular intervals by taking the help of outside consultants who specialize in a particular descriptive.

6. Remedial Training
Such training is arranged to overcome the shortcomings in the behavior and performance of old employees. Some of the experienced employees might have picked up appropriate methods and styles of working. Such employees are identified and correct work methods and procedures are taught to them. Remedial training should be conducted by psychological experts.

Steps to Identify Training Needs
All training activities must be related to the specific needs of the organization and the individual employees. A training programme should be launched only after the training needs are assessed clearly and specifically. The effectiveness of a training programme can be judged only with the help of training needs identified in advance. In order to identify training needs, the gap between the existing and required levels of knowledge, skills performance and aptitudes should be specified. The problem areas that can be resolved through training should also be identified.
Training need can be identified through the following types of analysis :

i.Analysis of objectives
This is the study of short term and long term objectives and the strategies followed at various levels to meet these objectives.

ii.Resource utilization
How the various organizational resources (human,physical and financial) are put to use is the main focus of this study. The contributions of various departments are also examined by establishing efficiency indices for each unit. This is done to find out comparative labour costs, whether a unit is undermanned or over-manned.

iii.Environmental scanning
Here the economic, political, socio cultural and technological environment of the organization is examined.

iv.Organisational climate analysis
The climate of an organization speaks about the attitudes of members towards work, company policies, supervisors, etc. Absenteeism, turnover ratios generally reflect the prevailing employee attitudes. These can be used to find out whether training efforts have improved the overall climte within the company or not.

2. Task or role analysis
It is a systemic and detailed analysts of jobs to identify job contents, the knowledge skills and aptitudes required and the work behaviour. On the part of the job holder, particular attention should be paid to the tasks to be performed, the methods to be used, the way employees have learnt these methods and the performance standards required of employees. Also called operations analysis, the purpose is to decide what should be taught. Questionnaire, interviews human resource records, reports, tests, observation and other methods can be used to collect information about jobs in the organisation.

3. Manpower Analysis
Here the focus is on the individual in a given job. There are three issues to be resolved :
i.It is necessary to decide whether performance of individual is sub-standard and training is required.
ii.Whether the employees is capable of being trained .
iii.Whether poor performers on the job need to be replaced by those who can do the job.

Other options to training such as modifications in the job or processes should be looked into. Personal observation, performance reviews, supervisory reports, diagnostic tests help in collecting the required information and select particular training options that try to improve the performance of individual workers.

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