Environmental Threat and Opportunity Profile (ЕТОР)
The Environmental factors are quite complex and it may be difficult for strategy managers to classify them into neat categories to interpret them as opportunities and threats. A matrix of comparison is drawn where one item or factor is compared with other items after which the scores arrived at are added and ranked for each factor and total weight age score calculated for prioritizing each of the factors.
This is achieved by brainstorming. And finally the strategy manger uses his judgment to place various environmental issues in clear perspective to create the environmental threat and opportunity profile.
Although the technique of dividing various environmental factors into specific sectors and evaluating them as opportunities and threats is suggested by some authors, it must be carefully noted that each sector is not exclusive of the other.
Each of the major factors pertaining to a particular sector of environment may be divided into sub-sectors and their effects studied. The field force analysis goes hand in glove with ETOP, as here also the contribution with regard to opportunities and threats posed by the environment is also a necessary part of study.
The preparation of ETOP involves dividing the environment into different sectors and then analyzing the impact of each sector on the organization. A comprehensive ETOP requires subdividing each environmental sector into sub factors and then the impact of each sub factor on the organization is described in the form of a statement.
A summary ETOP may only show the major factors for the sake of simplicity. The table 1 provides an example of an ETOP prepared for an established company, which is in the Two Wheeler industry.
The main business of the company is in Motor Bike manufacturing for the domestic and exports markets. This example relates to a hypothetical company but the illustration is realistic based n the current Indian business environment.
Table 1: Environmental Threat and Opportunity Profile (ETOP) for a Motor Bike company:
|Environmental Sectors||Impact of each sector|
|Social (↑)||Customer preference for motorbike, which are fashionable, easy to ride and durable.|
|Political (→)||No significant factor.|
|Economic (↑)||Growing affluence among urban consumers; Exports potential high.|
|Regulatory (↑)||Two Wheeler industry a thrust area for exports.|
|Market (↑)||Industry growth rate is 10 to 12 percent per year, For motorbike growth rate is 40 percent, largely Unsaturated demand.|
|Supplier (↑)||Mostly ancillaries and associated companies supply parts and components, REP licenses for imported raw materials available.|
|Technological (↑)||Technological up gradation of industry in progress. Import of machinery under OGL list possible.|
As shown in the table motorbike manufacturing is an attractive proposition due to the many opportunities operating in the environment. The company-can capitalize on the burgeoning demand by taking advantage of the various government policies and concessions. It can also take advantage of the high exports potential that already exists.
Since the company is an established manufacturer of motorbike, it has a favorable supplier as well as technological environment. But contrast the implications of this ETOP for a new manufacturer who is planning to enter this industry.
Though the market environment would still be favorable, much would depend on the extent to which the company is able to ensure the supply of raw materials and components, and have access to the latest technology and have the facilities to use it. The preparation of an ETOP provides a clear picture for organization to formulate strategies to take advantage of the opportunities and counter the threats in its environment.
The strategic managers should keep focus on the following dimensions:
1. Issue Selection:
Focus on issues, which have been selected, should not be missed since there is a likelihood of arriving at incorrect priorities. Some of the impotent issues may be those related to market share, competitive pricing, customer preferences, technological changes, economic policies, competitive trends, etc.
2. Accuracy of Data:
Data should be collected from good sources otherwise the entire process of environmental scanning may go waste. The relevance, importance, manageability, variability and low cost of data are some of the important factors, Which must be kept in focus.
3. Impact Studies:
Impact studies should be conducted focusing on the various opportunities and threats and the critical issues selected. It may include study of probable effects on the company’s strengths and weaknesses, operating and remote environment, competitive position, accomplishment of mission and vision etc. Efforts should be taken to make assessments more objective wherever possible.
4. Flexibility in Operations:
There are number of uncertainties exist in a business situation and so a company can be greatly benefited buy devising proactive and flexible strategies in their plans, structures, strategy etc. The optimum level of flexibility should be maintained.
Some of the key elements for increasing the flexibility are as follows:
(a) The strategy for flexibility must be stated to enable managers adopt it during unique situations.
(b) Strategies must be reviewed and changed if required.
(c) Exceptions to decided strategies must be handled beforehand. This would enable managers to violate strategies when it is necessary.
(d) Flexibility may be quite costly for an organization in terms of changes and compressed plans; however, it is equally important for companies to meet urgent challenges.