Methods and Types of Training
- On-the-job training Methods
- Off-the-job Training Methods
1. On-the-job Training Methods
Under these methods new or inexperienced employees learn through observing peers or managers performing the job and trying to imitate their behaviour. These methods do not cost much and are less disruptive as employees are always on the job, training is given on the same machines and experience would be on already approved standards, and above all the trainee is learning while earning. Some of the commonly used methods are:
Coaching is a one-to-one training. It helps in quickly identifying the weak areas and tries to focus on them. It also offers the benefit of transferring theory learning to practice. The biggest problem is that it perpetrates the existing practices and styles. In India most of the scooter mechanics are trained only through this method.
The focus in this training is on the development of attitude. It is used for managerial employees. Mentoring is always done by a senior inside person. It is also one-to- one interaction, like coaching.
(III) Job Rotation
It is the process of training employees by rotating them through a series of related jobs. Rotation not only makes a person well acquainted with different jobs, but it also alleviates boredom and allows to develop rapport with a number of people. Rotation must be logical.
(IV) Job Instructional Technique (JIT)
It is a Step by step (structured) on the job training method in which a suitable trainer (a) prepares a trainee with an overview of the job, its purpose, and the results desired, (b) demonstrates the task or the skill to the trainee, (c) allows the trainee to show the demonstration on his or her own, and (d) follows up to provide feedback and help. The trainees are presented the learning material in written or by learning machines through a series called ‘frames’. This method is a valuable tool for all educators (teachers and trainers). It helps us:
- To deliver step-by-step instruction
- To know when the learner has learned
- To be due diligent (in many work-place environments)
Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a skill. This method of training is in vogue in those trades, crafts and technical fields in which a long period is required for gaining proficiency. The trainees serve as apprentices to experts for long periods. They have to work in direct association with and also under the direct supervision of their masters.
The object of such training is to make the trainees all-round craftsmen. It is an expensive method of training. Also, there is no guarantee that the trained worker will continue to work in the same organization after securing training. The apprentices are paid remuneration according the apprenticeship agreements.
In this method, a superior gives training to a subordinate as his understudy like an assistant to a manager or director (in a film). The subordinate learns through experience and observation by participating in handling day to day problems. Basic purpose is to prepare subordinate for assuming the full responsibilities and duties.
Off-the-job Training Methods
Off-the-job training methods are conducted in separate from the job environment, study material is supplied, there is full concentration on learning rather than performing, and there is freedom of expression. Important methods include:
(I) Lectures and Conferences
Lectures and conferences are the traditional and direct method of instruction. Every training programme starts with lecture and conference. It’s a verbal presentation for a large audience. However, the lectures have to be motivating and creating interest among trainees. The speaker must have considerable depth in the subject. In the colleges and universities, lectures and seminars are the most common methods used for training.
(II) Vestibule Training
Vestibule Training is a term for near-the-job training, as it offers access to something new (learning). In vestibule training, the workers are trained in a prototype environment on specific jobs in a special part of the plant.
An attempt is made to create working condition similar to the actual workshop conditions. After training workers in such condition, the trained workers may be put on similar jobs in the actual workshop.
This enables the workers to secure training in the best methods to work and to get rid of initial nervousness. During the Second World War II, this method was used to train a large number of workers in a short period of time. It may also be used as a preliminary to on-the job training. Duration ranges from few days to few weeks. It prevents trainees to commit costly mistakes on the actual machines.
(III) Simulation Exercises
Simulation is any artificial environment exactly similar to the actual situation. There are four basic simulation techniques used for imparting training: management games, case study, role playing, and in-basket training.
- Management Games- Properly designed games help to ingrain thinking habits, analytical, logical and reasoning capabilities, importance of team work, time management, to make decisions lacking complete information, communication and leadership capabilities. Use of management games can encourage novel, innovative mechanisms for coping with stress. Management games orient a candidate with practical applicability of the subject. These games help to appreciate management concepts in a practical way. Different games are used for training general managers and the middle management and functional heads – executive Games and functional heads.
- Case Study- Case studies are complex examples which give an insight into the context of a problem as well as illustrating the main point. Case Studies are trainee centered activities based on topics that demonstrate theoretical concepts in an applied setting. A case study allows the application of theoretical concepts to be demonstrated, thus bridging the gap between theory and practice, encourage active learning, provides an opportunity for the development of key skills such as communication, group working and problem solving, and increases the trainees” enjoyment of the topic and hence their desire to learn.
- Role Playing- Each trainee takes the role of a person affected by an issue and studies the impacts of the issues on human life and/or the effects of human activities on the world around us from the perspective of that person. It emphasizes the “real- world” side of science and challenges students to deal with complex problems with no single “right” answer and to use a variety of skills beyond those employed in a typical research project. In particular, role-playing presents the student a valuable opportunity to learn not just the course content, but other perspectives on it. The steps involved in role playing include defining objectives, choose context & roles, introducing the exercise, trainee preparation/research, the role-play, concluding discussion, and assessment. Types of role play may be multiple role play, single role play, role rotation, and spontaneous role play.
- In-basket training- In-basket exercise, also known as in-tray training, consists of a set of business papers which may include e-mail SMSs, reports, memos, and other items. Now the trainer is asked to prioritise the decisions to be made immediately and the ones that can be delayed.
(IV) Sensitivity Training
Sensitivity training is also known as laboratory or T-group training. This training is about making people understand about themselves and others reasonably, which is done by developing in them social sensitivity and behavioral flexibility. It is ability of an individual to sense what others feel and think from their own point of view.
It reveals information about his or her own personal qualities, concerns, emotional issues, and things that he or she has in common with other members of the group. It is the ability to behave suitably in light of understanding.
A group’s trainer refrains from acting as a group leader or lecturer, attempting instead to clarify the group processes using incidents as examples to clarify general points or provide feedback. The group action, overall, is the goal as well as the process.
(v) Transactional Analysis
It provides trainees with a realistic and useful method for analyzing and understanding the behavior of others. In every social interaction, there is a motivation provided by one person and a reaction to that motivation given by another person.
This motivation reaction relationship between two persons is known as a transaction. Transactional analysis can be done by the ego (system of feelings accompanied by a related set of behaviors states of an individual).
Types of Training
Various types of training can be given to the employees such as induction training, refresher training, on the job training, vestibule training, and training for promotions.
Some of the commonly used training programs are listed below
- Induction training
Also known as orientation training given for the new recruits in order to make them familiarize with the internal environment of an organization. It helps the employees to understand the procedures, code of conduct, policies existing in that organization.
- Job instruction training
This training provides an overview about the job and experienced trainers demonstrates the entire job. Addition training is offered to employees after evaluating their performance if necessary.
- Vestibule training
It is the training on actual work to be done by an employee but conducted away from the work place.
- Refresher training
This type of training is offered in order to incorporate the latest development in a particular field. This training is imparted to upgrade the skills of employees. This training can also be used for promoting an employee.
- Apprenticeship training
Apprentice is a worker who spends a prescribed period of time under a supervisor.