According to Leon C. Megginson “From the national point of view human resources are knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents, and attitudes obtained in the population; whereas from the view-point of the individual enterprise, they represent the total of the inherent abilities, acquired knowledge and skills as exemplified in the talents and aptitude of its employees”.
In simple words, HRM is a process of making the efficient and effective use of human resources so that the set goals are achieved. Let us also consider some important definitions of HRM.
The National Institute of Personnel Management (NIPM) of India has defined human resource/personnel management as “that part of management which is concerned with people at work and with their relationship within an enterprise. Its aim is to bring together and develop into an effective organisation of the men and women who make up an enterprise and having regard for the well-being of the individuals and of working groups, to enable them to make their best contribution to its success”.
According to Decenzo and Robbins “HRM is concerned with the people dimension in management. Since every organization is made up of people, acquiring their services, developing their skills, motivating them to higher levels of performance and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment to the organization are essential to achieving organisational objectives. This is true, regardless of the type of organization-government, business, education, health, recreation, or social action”.
Thus, HRM can be defined as a process of procuring, developing and maintaining competent human resources in the organization so that the goals of an organization are achieved in an effective and efficient manner. In short, HRM is an art of managing people at work in such a manner that they give their best to the organization for achieving its set goals.
Nature of Human Resource Management
- A part of Management Discipline
HRM is a part of management discipline. It is not a discipline in itself but is only a field of study. HRM, being a part of management process, draws heavily from management concepts, principles and techniques and apply these in the management of human resources.
- Universal Existence
HRM is pervasive in nature. It is present in all enterprises. It permeates all levels of management in an organization.
- Concerned with People
HRM is all about people at work, both as individuals and groups. It tries to put people on assigned job in order to produce goods results. The resultant gains are used to reward people and motivate them towards further improvement is productivity.
- Action oriented
HRM focuses attention on action, rather than on record keeping, written procedures or rules. The problems of employees are solved through rational policies.
- Directed towards Achievement of Objectives
HRM is directed towards achievement of organisational objectives by providing tools and techniques of managing people in the organisation effectively.
- Integrating Mechanism
HRM tries to build and maintain cordial relation between people working at different levels in the organization. It tries to integrate human assets in the best possible manner for achieving organisational goals.
- Development Oriented
HRM intends to develop the full potential of employees. The reward structure is turned to the needs of employees. Training is provided to improve the skill of employees. Every attempt is made to use their talents fully in the service of organisational goals.
- Continuous Process
HRM is not a one short deal. It cannot be practised only one hour each day or one day a week. It requires constant alertness and awareness of human relations and their importance in every day operations.
- Comprehensive Function
HRM is concerned with managing people at work. It covers all types of people at all levels in the organization. It applies to workers, supervisors, officers, manager and other types of personnel.
The scope of HRM is, indeed, very vast and wide. It includes all activities starting from manpower planning till employee leaves the organization. Accordingly, the scope of HRM consists of acquisition, development, maintenance/retention, and control of human resources in the organization (see figure 1.1). The same forms the subject matter of HRM. As the subsequent pages unfold, all these are discussed, in detail, in seriatim.
The National Institute of personnel Management, Calcutta has specified the scope of HRM as follows:
The Labour or Personnel Aspect
This is concerned with manpower planning, recruitment, selection, placement, transfer, promotion, training and development, lay-off and retrenchment, remuneration, incentives, productivity, etc.
It deals with working conditions, and amenities such as canteen, creches, rest and lunch rooms, housing, transport, medical assistance, education, health and safety, recreation facilities, etc.
Industrial Relations Aspects
This covers union-management relations, joint consultation, collective bargaining, grievance and disciplinary actions, settlement of disputes, etc.