Diffusion of Innovation
The diffusion of innovation is the process by which new products are adopted (or not) by their intended audiences. It allows designers and marketers to examine why it is that some inferior products are successful when some superior products are not.
The idea of diffusion is not new; in fact it was originally examined by Gabriel Tarde, a French sociologist, in the 19th century. However, it wasn’t until the 1920s and 1930s that the phenomenon began to be investigated in depth by researchers.
The Process for Diffusion of Innovation
Rogers’ draws on Ryan and Gross’s work to deliver a 5 stage process for the diffusion of innovation.
The first step in the diffusion of innovation is knowledge. This is the point at which the would-be adopter is first exposed to the innovation itself. They do not have enough information to make a decision to purchase on and have not yet been sufficiently inspired to find out more.
At this stage marketers will be looking to increase awareness of the product and provide enough education that the prospective adopter moves to the 2nd stage.
As it was once said (by whom we’re not sure); “If the user can’t find it, it doesn’t exist.”
Persuasion is the point at which the prospective adopter is open to the idea of purchase. They are actively seeking information which will inform their eventual decision.
This is the point at which marketers will be seeking to convey the benefits of the product in detail. There will be a conscious effort to sell the product to someone at this stage of the diffusion of innovation.
Eventually the would-be adopter must make a decision. They will weigh up the pros and cons of adoption and either accept the innovation or reject it.
It is worth noting that this is the most opaque part of the process. Rogers cites this as the most difficult phase on which to acquire intelligence. This is, at least in part, due to the fact that people do not make rational decisions in many instances. They make a decision based on their underlying perceptions and feelings and following the decision they attempt to rationalize that decision. Thus, obtaining an understanding of the decision making process is challenging – the reasons given following a decision are not likely to be representative of the actual reasons that a decision was made.
Once a decision to adopt a product has been made the product will, in most cases, be used by the purchaser. This stage is when the adopter makes a decision as to whether or not the product is actually useful to them. They may also seek out further information to either support the use of the product or to better understand the product in context.
This phase is interesting because it suggests that designers and marketers alike need to consider the ownership process in detail. How can a user obtain useful information in the post-sale environment? The quality of the implementation experience is going to be determined, to a lesser or greater extent, by the ease of access to information and the quality of that information.
This is the point at which the user evaluates their decision and decides whether they will keep using the product or abandon use of the product. This phase can only be ended by abandonment of a product otherwise it is continual. (For example, you may buy a new car today – you are highly likely to keep using the car for a number of years – eventually, however, you will probably sell the car and buy a new one).
This phase will normally involve a personal examination of the product and also a social one (the user will seek confirmation from their peers, colleagues, friends, etc.)