A large variety of methods of training are used in business. Even within one organization different methods are used for training different people. All the methods are divided into two classifications for:
Training Methods: On Job Training and off the Job Training Methods
On-the-job training Methods
Under these methods new or inexperienced employees learn through observing peers or managers performing the job and trying to imitate their behavior. These methods do not cost much and are less disruptive as employees are always on the job, training is given on the same machines and experience would be on already approved standards, and above all the trainee is learning while earning. Some of the commonly used methods are:-
(a) Coaching: Coaching is a one-to-one training. It helps in quickly identifying the weak areas and tries to focus on them. It also offers the benefit of transferring theory learning to practice. The biggest problem is that it perpetrates the existing practices and styles. In India most of the scooter mechanics are trained only through this method.
(b) Mentoring: The focus in this training is on the development of attitude. It is used for managerial employees. Mentoring is always done by a senior inside person. It is also one-to- one interaction, like coaching.
(c) Job Rotation: It is the process of training employees by rotating them through a series of related jobs. Rotation not only makes a person well acquainted with different jobs, but it also alleviates boredom and allows to develop rapport with a number of people. Rotation must be logical.
(d) Job Instructional Technique (JIT): It is a Step by step (structured) on the job training method in which a suitable trainer (i) prepares a trainee with an overview of the job, its purpose, and the results desired, (ii) demonstrates the task or the skill to the trainee, (iii) allows the trainee to show the demonstration on his or her own, and (iv) follows up to provide feedback and help. The trainees are presented the learning material in written or by learning machines through a series called ‘frames’. This method is a valuable tool for all educators (teachers and trainers). It helps us:
- To deliver step-by-step instruction
- To know when the learner has learned
- To be due diligent (in many work-place environments)
(e) Apprenticeship: Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a skill. This method of training is in vogue in those trades, crafts and technical fields in which a long period is required for gaining proficiency. The trainees serve as apprentices to experts for long periods. They have to work in direct association with and also under the direct supervision of their masters.
The object of such training is to make the trainees all-round craftsmen. It is an expensive method of training. Also, there is no guarantee that the trained worker will continue to work in the same organization after securing training. The apprentices are paid remuneration according the apprenticeship agreements.
(f) Understudy: In this method, a superior gives training to a subordinate as his understudy like an assistant to a manager or director (in a film). The subordinate learns through experience and observation by participating in handling day to day problems. Basic purpose is to prepare subordinate for assuming the full responsibilities and duties.
Off-the-job Training Methods
Off-the-job training methods are conducted in separate from the job environment, study material is supplied, there is full concentration on learning rather than performing, and there is freedom of expression. Important methods include:
(a) Lectures and Conferences: Lectures and conferences are the traditional and direct method of instruction. Every training programme starts with lecture and conference. It’s a verbal presentation for a large audience. However, the lectures have to be motivating and creating interest among trainees. The speaker must have considerable depth in the subject. In the colleges and universities, lectures and seminars are the most common methods used for training.
(b) Vestibule Training: Vestibule Training is a term for near-the-job training, as it offers access to something new (learning). In vestibule training, the workers are trained in a prototype environment on specific jobs in a special part of the plant.
An attempt is made to create working condition similar to the actual workshop conditions. After training workers in such condition, the trained workers may be put on similar jobs in the actual workshop.
(c) Simulation Exercises: Simulation is any artificial environment exactly similar to the actual situation. There are four basic simulation techniques used for imparting training: management games, case study, role playing, and in-basket training.
(d) Sensitivity Training: Sensitivity training is also known as laboratory or T-group training. This training is about making people understand about themselves and others reasonably, which is done by developing in them social sensitivity and behavioral flexibility. It is ability of an individual to sense what others feel and think from their own point of view.
It reveals information about his or her own personal qualities, concerns, emotional issues, and things that he or she has in common with other members of the group. It is the ability to behave suitably in light of understanding.
(e) Transactional Analysis: It provides trainees with a realistic and useful method for analyzing and understanding the behavior of others. In every social interaction, there is a motivation provided by one person and a reaction to that motivation given by another person.