Spatial data is associated with geographic locations such as cities, towns etc. A spatial database is optimized to store and query data representing objects. These are the objects which are defined in a geometric space.
Characteristics of Spatial Database
A spatial database system has the following characteristics
- It is a database system
- It offers spatial data types (SDTs) in its data model and query language.
- It supports spatial data types in its implementation, providing at least spatial indexing and efficient algorithms for spatial join.
A road map is a visualization of geographic information. A road map is a 2-dimensional object which contains points, lines, and polygons that can represent cities, roads, and political boundaries such as states or provinces.
In general, spatial data can be of two types:
- Vector data: This data is represented as discrete points, lines and polygons
- Rastor data: This data is represented as a matrix of square cells.