Individual Process: Personality
The word personality is derived from a Greek word “persona” which means “to speak through.” Personality is the combination of characteristics or qualities that forms a person’s unique identity. It signifies the role which a person plays in public. Every individual has a unique, personal and major determinant of his behavior that defines his/her personality.
Personality trait is basically influenced by two major features:
- Inherited characteristics
- Learned characteristics
The features an individual acquires from their parents or forefathers, in other words the gifted features an individual possesses by birth is considered as inherited characteristics. It consists of the following features:
- Color of a person’s eye
- Religion/Race of a person
- Shape of the nose
- Shape of earlobes
Nobody learns everything by birth. First, our school is our home, then our society, followed by educational institutes. The characteristics an individual acquires by observing, practicing, and learning from others and the surroundings is known as learned characteristics.
Learned characteristics includes the following features:
- Perception: Result of different senses like feeling, hearing etc.
- Values: Influences perception of a situation, decision making process.
- Personality: Patterns of thinking, feeling, understanding and behaving.
- Attitude: Positive or negative attitude like expressing one’s thought.
Traits of Personality
Personality traits are the enduring features that define an individual’s behavior. A personality trait is a unique feature in an individual. Psychologists resolved that there are five major personality traits and every individual can be categorized into at least one of them. These five personality traits are:
Major Personality Attributes
Following are the five major personality attributes that influence OB:
Locus of Control
Locus of control is the center of control of an individual’s code of conduct. People can be grouped into two categories i.e., internals and externals respectively.
People who consider themselves as the masters of their own fates are known as internals, while, those who affirm that their lives are controlled by outside forces known as externals.
Before making any decision, internals actively search for information, they are achievement driven, and want to command their environment. Thus, internals do well on jobs that craves complex information processing, taking initiative and independent action.
Externals, on the other hand, are more compliant, more willing to follow instructions, so, they do well in structured, routine jobs.
Machiavellianism is being practical, emotionally distant, and believing that ends justify means.
Machiavellians are always wanting to win and are great persuaders. Here are the significant features of a high-mach individuals:
- High-Machs prefer precise interactions rather than beating about the bush.
- High-Machs tend to improvise; they do not necessarily abide by rules and regulations all the time.
- High-Machs get distracted by emotional details that are irrelevant to the outcome of a project.
It is the extent up to which people either like or dislike themselves. Self-Esteem is directly related to the expectations of success and on-the-job satisfaction.
Individuals with high self-esteem think that they have what it takes to succeed. So, they take more challenges while selecting a job.
On the other hand, individuals with low self-esteem are more susceptible to external distractions. So, they are more likely to seek the approval of others and to adapt the beliefs and behaviors of those they respect.
Self-monitoring is the capability of regulating one’s behavior according to social situations. Individuals with high self-monitoring skill easily adjust their behavior according to external, situational factors. Their impulsive talents allow them to present public personae which are completely different from their private personalities.
However, people with low self-monitoring skills cannot cover themselves. Regardless of any situation, they are always themselves. They have an attitude of, “what you see is what you get.”
Generally, managers are reluctant on taking risks. However, individual risk-taking inclination affects the bulk of information required by the managers and how long it takes them to make decisions.
Thus, it is very important to recognize these differences and align risk-taking propensity with precise job demands that can make sense.