Individual Process: Value
Values are stable, long lasting beliefs about what is important to an Values are a very powerful but individual. Values are very important to the study of the organisational behaviour, silent force affecting human because values have an important influence on the attitudes, perceptions, and needs and motives of the people at work. Values are the basis of human personality and are a very powerful but silent force affecting human behaviour.
Values are so much embedded in the personalities of the people that they can be inferred from people’s behaviour and their attitudes. Effective managers have to understand the values underlying the behaviour of the employees, because only then they will realize why the people behave in strange and different ways sometimes.
Meaning and Definition of Values:
A value system is viewed as a relatively permanent perceptual frame work which influences the nature of an individual’s behaviour. The values are the attributes possessed by an individual and thought desirable. Values are similar to attitudes but are more permanent and well built in nature.
A value may be defined as a “concept of the desirable, an internalized criterion or standard of evaluation a person possesses. Such concepts and standards are relatively few and determine or guide an individual’s evaluations of the many objects encountered in everyday life.”
According to Milton Rokeach, a noted psychologist “Values are global beliefs that guide actions and judgments across a variety of situations.” Values represent basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct (or end state of existence) is personality or socially preferable to an opposite mode of conduct (or end state of existence)”.
Characteristic of Values:
Values are generally, tinged with moral flavour and they contain a judgmental element, involving an individual’s idea as to what is right, good, desirable.
(i) Values provide standards of competence and morality.
(ii) Values are fewer in number than attitudes.
(iii) Values transcend specific objects, situations or persons.
(iv) Values are relatively permanent and resistant to change.
(v) Values are most central to the core of a person.
(vi) Values have two attributes-content and intensity. The content attribute stresses that a particular code of conduct is important. The intensity attribute specifies how important that particulars code of conduct is.
(vii) When we rank an individual’s values in terms of their intensity. We obtain the value system of that person.
(viii) In the value system, all of us have a hierarchy of values; which is identified by the relative importance we assign to different values such as freedom, self respect, honesty, self respect, and so on.
Importance of Values:
(i) Values lay the foundations for the understanding of attitudes and motivation.
(ii) Personal value system influences the perception of individuals.
(iii) Value system influences the manager’s perception of the different situations.
(iv) Personal value system influences the way in which a manager views the other individuals and the groups of individuals in the organisation.
(v) Value system also influences a manager’s decisions and his solutions to the various problems.
(vi) Values influence the attitudes and behaviours. An individual will get more job satisfaction if his values align with the organisation’s policies. If the organisation’s policies are different from his views and values, he will be disappointed; the disappointment will lead to job dissatisfaction and decline in performance.
(vii) The challenge and reexamination of established work values constitute important corner stone’s of the current management revolution all over the world. Hence, an understanding of the values becomes a necessity.
Types of Values:
Milton Rokeach Classification:
An extensive research conducted by the noted psychologist Milton Rokeach, identifies two basic types of values.
- Terminal Values:
A terminal value is an ultimate goal in a desired status or outcome. These lead to the ends to be achieved.
The examples of terminal values are:
Instrumental values relate to means for achieving desired ends. It is a tool for acquiring a terminal value.
The instrumental values given in this study are:
The combination of terminal and instrumental values an individual has, create an enduring cluster of values which is his value system. Thus, according to this survey, our values and value system are primarily the determinants of who and what we are as individuals.
Allport, Vernon and Lindzey Classification:
G.W. Allport, P.E. Vernon and G. Lindzey have categorized values into six major types as follows:
Interest in the discovery of truth through reasoning and systematic thinking. The ideal theoretical man values the discovery of truth.
Interest in usefulness and practicality, including the accumulation of wealth. The ideal economic man values what is useful and concerned with practical affairs.
Interest in beauty, form and artistic harmony. The ideal aesthetic man values artistic and aesthetic experiences in life, though he himself may not be creative.
Interest in people and human relationships. The ideal social man places great values on affiliation and love. He tends to be kind and sympathetic to other individuals.
Interest in gaining power and influencing other people. The ideal political man places great value on power.
Interest in unity and understanding the cosmos as a whole. The highest value for the ideal religious man may be called unit. Different people give different importance to the above mentioned six values. Every individuals gives ranking to the values from one to six. This is very important for understanding the behaviour of the people.
Sources of Values:
- Family Factor:
The most important factor which influences the value system of an individual is his immediate family. Some values are inculcated in A person learn and develops values from the following sources the individuals from the childhood and remain in his mind throughout his life. The child rearing practices the parents adopt shape the personality of the human being. Family is the most influential factor in the individual’s learning of social behaviour, values and norms.
- Social Factors:
Out of all the social factors school plays the most important role in developing the value system of an individual. The child learns the basic discipline from the school. Moreover, the interactions with the teachers, classmates and other staff members in the schools and colleges make the child inculcate values important to the teaching-learning process. Other social factors which may affect values are religious economic and political institutional in the society.
- Personal Factors:
Personal traits such as intelligence, ability, appearance and educational level of the person determine his development of values. For example, if a person is highly intelligent, he will understand the values faster. If he is highly educated, high values will be inculcated in him by his school and college.
- Cultural Factors:
Cultural factors include everything that is learned and passed on from generation to generation. Culture includes certain beliefs and other patterns of behaviour. An individual is a participant in social culture, group culture and organisational culture. Thus, he is known as a composite of many cultural elements. Culture is based on certain implicit and explicit values. For example, whether a person is co-operative, friendly or hostile depends upon to which culture he belongs to Individual relationships are different in different cultures and within certain groups of society also. Whether, the individual values money making or doing service to the mankind again depends upon his cultural background.
- Religious Factors:
Individuals, generally, receive strength and comfort from their religion. Religion comprises of a formal set of values which are passed on from generation to generation. Advancement in technology has under viewed faith in traditional religious beliefs and values.
- Life Experiences:
A man learns the most from his own personal life experience. Sometimes man can learn from the experience of others also. In the long run, most of the values which influence our behaviour are validated by the satisfaction we have experienced in pursuing them. Individuals work out their values on the basis of what seems most logical to them.
Values carry importance in direct proportion to how much faith the individual has in them. He should have those values which can stand the test of reality. He should not have rigid values but flexible system which can change with the changes in the individual himself, his life situation and the socio-economic environment.
- Role Demands:
The role demand refers to the behaviour associated with a particular position in the organisation. All organisations have some formal and some informal code of behaviour. Role demand can create problems when there is a role conflict. Thus, the managers will have to quickly learn the value system prevalent in the organisation.
If they want to move up the ladder of success. For example, if the informal code of behaviour says that the manager must mix up socially with the subordinates, he should learn to do so even though, his personal value system conflicts with his role as a manager.
- Halo Effect:
The halo effect refers to the tendency of judging people on the’ basis of a single trait, which may be good or bad, favourable or un-favourable. Sometimes, we judge a person by one first impression about him or her. For example, if a person is kind, he will also be perceived as good, able, helpful, cheerful, nice, and intelligent and so on.
On the other hand, if a person is abrasive, he shall also be perceived as bad, awful, unkind, aggressive, harmful and wicked. Thus, what one sees in the universe depends partly on one’s inner needs. Thus, with the help of halo effect, we see certain values in others which are actually not there, but we perceive them to be there.