Political Rights and Social Rights
- Right to Vote:
In a democratic state, every adult citizen is given the right to vote. By the use of this right, citizens elect the government of their choice. This right is given only to the adults i.e. persons above a particular age 18 years or 21 years.
- Right to get elected:
In a democratic state every citizen is also given the right to get elected to any public office. He can get elected to a legislature, or municipal corporation/ municipal committee or panchayat and work as its member. Some qualifications are however fixed for seeking election.
- Right to Hold Public Office:
Citizens also have the right to hold public offices after getting elected as representatives of the people. While fixing qualifications, no discrimination is made and proper care is taken that only competent persons may get elected.
- Right to Petition:
Citizens have the right to petition and they can send applications individually or collectively to the authorities for the redress of their grievances.
- Right to Form Political Parties:
In every democratic state; people have the right to form their political parties and to participate in the political process through these.
- Right to Criticise:
In a democratic state citizen also enjoy the right to criticise the politics of the government. It is through the exercise of this right that the government is made responsible.
- Right to oppose the Government:
Citizens of a democratic, like India, have the right to oppose the government when it may fail to protect their interests. However such a resistance has to be peaceful and by constitutional means. All these civil, economic and political rights are granted and guaranteed by the state, in fact by a democratic state, to all its citizens without any discrimination.
1. Right to Life:
Man must live before he can do anything. The state has to make provisions for well-being and safety of its citizens. The right also implies to the right to self-defense and prevention of suicide.
2. Right to Family Life:
Right to family life is of great significance for the continuation of human race. One can marry the person of his/her choice and produce children.
3. Right to Education:
Every state gives the opportunity to its citizens to get an education as only educated people can participate in the working of society and government.
4. Right to Personal Freedom:
Right to personal freedom is absolutely essential for the mental and physical growth of an individual. Right to personal freedom can be enjoyed in accordance with the laws made by the state and also in accordance with the interests of society.
5. Right to Religious Freedom:
The State does not impose any religion on people and they are free to adopt any religion, and establish their religious institutions.
6. Right to Freedom of Thought and Expression:
Right to freedom of thought and expression is also very important for personality development. All people want the freedom to express and exchange with others their views and ideas.
7. Right to Freedom of Movement:
Every citizen has the right to move freely throughout the country. Citizens are also given the right to go abroad. However certain areas can be made restricted areas.
8. Freedom of Press:
Citizens are given the right to get their views printed in newspapers and periodicals. This right is essential for spreading education and information among the people.
9. Right to Equality:
In a modern democratic state, individuals are granted the right to equality. Though discrimination is done on the basis of religion, language, caste, sex and colour. Everyone is given equal opportunity to develop.
10. Right to Justice:
To save the weak and the poor, right to get justice is also given. If this right is not given, many other rights also become meaningless. People are given the right to go to court for securing justice.
11. Freedom to Form Associations:
In order to fulfil social, economic, political and cultural needs, many form different types of associations and the state recognise their right to do so. But state does not permit the formation of associations that are considered harmful to the interest of the society.
12. Right to Cultural Freedom:
Citizens have been given the right to cultural freedom. They are free to develop their languages, customs, folkways, literature, and traditions.
13. Right to Contract:
The right to contract enables the citizens to enter into free contracts with others. This is an essential condition of civilised life as without this social, economic and political relations cannot be really established.
Civil rights are the most basic and essential rights that citizens of India have. Each individual is morally obligated to act in a rightful way and help those who are simply unaware of what moral responsibilities they have.