Classification of Advertising
Different classifications of advertising are as follows:
- Primary vs. Selective Advertising
One way of classifying advertising is into primary as against selective demand advertising. The objective of commercial advertising is generally to stimulate demand for the goods or services of the company placing the advertisement.
Demands are of two types namely, primary demand and selective demand. The demand for a generic product of a whole industry is described as primary demand such as the demand for motor cars, television receivers, etc.
Selective demand refers to demand for a particular brand such as Fiat motor cars. Generally, primary demand advertising is indulged in by trade associations to create a general demand for the products of the industry concerned. Selective demand advertising is loaned by the companies who are interested in selling their own products.
- Product vs. Institutional Advertising
The commonest type of advertising is product advertising, where the company tries to sell its product or service through advertising. At times however, the objective of the company is to create a good image or sell ideas.
This is referred to as institutional advertising to distinguish it from product advertising. For example, institutional advertising may be of the “patronage institutional advertising” type. Here the objective is to sell the idea to the reader to patronize particular producer or shopkeeper or retailer for reasons mentioned such as wider selection, reliability, etc.
As against this, there is also “public relations institutional advertising” indulged in more today to create a better image to the public. For example, when there is a strike which affects the community both the employer and at times even the employees advertise in the papers to justify their own stand.
These are illustrations of public relations institutional advertising. A slight variation of this is called the “public service institutional advertising”, where the company attempts to create the image that it is conscious of social service and indicates how it helps the community such as developing a village and so on.
- Institutional Sports Sponsorship
Another form of Institutional Image Advertising is the modern trend of companies sponsoring sports events. The two outstanding illustrations are (i) The “Charminar Challenge” sponsorship by Vazir Sultan Tobacco Company and (ii) The “Reliance Cup” sponsorship of the 1987 World Cup Cricket Championship by Reliance Industries Ltd.
Under the Charminar Challenge umbrella, VST sponsors a wide variety of events ranging from cricket, badminton, table tennis and golf to car-rallying.VST sports sponsorship budget is estimated at Rs.1.5 crores per annum.
The Ranji Trophy, the Deodhar Trophy and all one-day internationals for the period 1986-89 will be Charminar Challenge championship matches, which ties up the domestic circuit pretty comprehensively. “Charminar” is the identity of the company.
The word “challenge” is inspiring, competitive and adventurous. This gives the way for a suitable image for VST and is close to the identity of the company’s products.
This is therefore an “entertainment-related corporate image and brand advertising” concept. Reliance Industries Ltd. paid a mammoth sum of Rs.4.8 crores. This sponsorship was done to ensure that an Indian company sponsored the prestigious 1987 World Cup Cricket event.
This “patriotism” certainly improved the company’s image. The Reliance Cup extravaganza focused attention on the commercial and promotional potential inherent in the corporate sponsorship of sports.
- Commercial vs. Non commercial Advertising
Commercial advertising is concerned with selling a product or an idea to help a commercial institution. It may consist of “consumer advertising” aimed at the ultimate consumer or “business or industrial advertising” aimed at industrial producers inducing them to purchase the product.
It may even include “professional advertising” directed at professionals such as doctors, lawyers, etc. Non-commercial advertising is advertising indulged in by non-profit organization such as the government or charitable institutions to support ideas, solicit donations, etc.
The methods used for preparing the advertisements are however the same whether one is concerned with commercial or non-commercial advertising.
- Classification by Media
Advertising can also be classified in terms of the media used such as window dressing in case of shops, press advertising, outdoor advertising and the use of advertising literature.
The several forms media will now be detailed in the subsequent chapters followed by discussions on preparation of an advertisement as well as an advertising campaign.