Internet Protocols, Search engines, e-mail
The Internet Protocol (IP) is a protocol, or set of rules, for routing and addressing packets of data so that they can travel across networks and arrive at the correct destination. Data traversing the Internet is divided into smaller pieces, called packets. IP information is attached to each packet, and this information helps routers to send packets to the right place. Every device or domain that connects to the Internet is assigned an IP address, and as packets are directed to the IP address attached to them, data arrives where it is needed.
Once the packets arrive at their destination, they are handled differently depending on which transport protocol is used in combination with IP. The most common transport protocols are TCP and UDP.
In networking, a protocol is a standardized way of doing certain actions and formatting data so that two or more devices are able to communicate with and understand each other.
To understand why protocols are necessary, consider the process of mailing a letter. On the envelope, addresses are written in the following order: name, street address, city, state, and zip code. If an envelope is dropped into a mailbox with the zip code written first, followed by the street address, followed by the state, and so on, the post office won’t deliver it. There is an agreed-upon protocol for writing addresses in order for the postal system to work. In the same way, all IP data packets must present certain information in a certain order, and all IP addresses follow a standardized format.
Search engine is a service that allows Internet users to search for content via the World Wide Web (WWW). A user enters keywords or key phrases into a search engine and receives a list of Web content results in the form of websites, images, videos or other online data. The list of content returned via a search engine to a user is known as a search engine results page (SERP).
To simplify, think of a search engine as two components. First a spider/web crawler trolls the web for content that is added to the search engine’s index. Then, when a user queries a search engine, relevant results are returned based on the search engine’s algorithm. Early search engines were based largely on page content, but as websites learned to game the system, algorithms have become much more complex and search results returned can be based on literally hundreds of variables.
There used to be a significant number of search engines with significant market share. Currently, Google and Microsoft’s Bing control the vast majority of the market. (While Yahoo generates many queries, their back-end search technology is outsourced to Microsoft.)
E-mail (electronic mail) is the exchange of computer-stored messages by telecommunication. (Some publications spell it email; we prefer the currently more established spelling of e-mail.) E-mail messages are usually encoded in ASCII text. However, you can also send non-text files, such as graphic images and sound files, as attachments sent in binary streams. E-mail was one of the first uses of the Internet and is still the most popular use. A large percentage of the total traffic over the Internet is e-mail. E-mail can also be exchanged between online service provider users and in networks other than the Internet, both public and private.
E-mail can be distributed to lists of people as well as to individuals. A shared distribution list can be managed by using an e-mail reflector. Some mailing lists allow you to subscribe by sending a request to the mailing list administrator. A mailing list that is administered automatically is called a list server.
E-mail is one of the protocols included with the Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite of protocols. A popular protocol for sending e-mail is Simple Mail Transfer Protocol and a popular protocol for receiving it is POP3. Both Netscape and Microsoft include an e-mail utility with their Web browsers.