Management: Objective and Scope
Objectives of Management
The primary objective of management is to run the enterprise smoothly. The profit earning objective of a business is also to be kept in mind while undertaking various functions.
Following are the broad objectives of management:
- Proper Utilization of Resources
The main objective of management is to use various resources of the enterprise in a most economic way. The proper use of men, materials, machines and money will help a business to earn sufficient profits to satisfy various interests. The proprietors will want more returns on their investments while employees, customers and public will expect a fair deal from the management. All these interests will be satisfied only when physical resources of the business are properly utilized.
- Improving Performance
Management should aim at improving the performance of each and every factor of production. The environment should be so congenial that workers are able to give their maximum to the enterprise. The fixing of objectives of various factors of production will help them in improving their performance.
- Mobilizing Best Talent
The management should try to employ persons in various fields so that better results are possible. The employment of specialists in various fields will be increasing the efficiency of various factors of production. There should be a proper environment which should encourage good persons to join the enterprise. The better pay scales, proper amenities, future growth potentialities will attract more people in joining a concern.
- Planning for Future
Another important objective of management is to prepare plans. No management should feel satisfied with today’s work if it has not thought of tomorrow. Future plans should take into consideration what is to be done next. Future performance will depend upon present planning. So, planning for future is essential to help the concern.
Scope of Management
Management is an all pervasive function since it is required in all types of organized endeavour. Thus, its scope is very large.
The following activities are covered under the scope of management:
(v) Coordinating, and
The operational aspects of business management, called the branches of management, are as follows:
- Production Management
- Marketing Management
- Financial Management.
- Personnel Management and
- Office Management.
1. Production Management
Production means creation of utilities. This creation of utilities takes place when raw materials are converted into finished products. Production management, then, is that branch of management ‘which by scientific planning and regulation sets into motion that part of enterprise to which has been entrusted the task of actual translation of raw material into finished product.’
It is a very important field of management ,’for every production activity which has not been hammered on the anvil of effective planning and regulation will not reach the goal, it will not meet the customers and ultimately will force a business enterprise to close its doors of activities which will give birth to so many social evils’.
Plant location and layout, production policy, type of production, plant facilities, material handling, production planning and control, repair and maintenance, research and development, simplification and standardization, quality control and value analysis, etc., are the main problems involved in production management.
- Marketing Management
Marketing is a sum total of physical activities which are involved in the transfer of goods and services and which provide for their physical distribution. Marketing management refers to the planning, organizing, directing and controlling the activities of the persons working in the market division of a business enterprise with the aim of achieving the organization objectives.
It can be regarded as a process of identifying and assessing the consumer needs with a view to first converting them into products or services and then involving the same to the final consumer or user so as to satisfy their wants with a stress on profitability that ensures the optimum use of the resources available to the enterprise. Market analysis, marketing policy, brand name, pricing, channels of distribution, sales promotion, sale-mix, after sales service, market research, etc. are the problems of marketing management.
- Financial Management
Finance is viewed as one of the most important factors in every enterprise. Financial management is concerned with the managerial activities pertaining to the procurement and utilization of funds or finance for business purposes.
The main functions of financial management include:
(i) Estimation of capital requirements;
(ii) Ensuring a fair return to investors;
(iii) Determining the suitable sources of funds;
(iv) Laying down the optimum and suitable capital
Structure for the enterprise
(i) Co-coordinating the operations of various departments;
(ii) Preparation, analysis and interpretation of financial statements;
(iii) Laying down a proper dividend policy; and
(iv) Negotiating for outside financing.
- Personnel Management
Personnel Management is that phase of management which deals with the effective control and use of manpower. Effective management of human resources is one of the most crucial factors associated with the success of an enterprise. Personnel management is concerned with managerial and operative functions.
Managerial functions of personnel management include:
(i) Personnel planning;
(ii) Organizing by setting up the structure of relationship among jobs, personnel and physical factors to contribute towards organization goals;
(iii) Directing the employees; and
The operating functions of personnel management are:
(i) Procurement of right kind and number of persons;
(ii) Training and development of employees;
(iii) Determination of adequate and equitable compensation of employees;
(iv) Integration of the interests of the personnel with that of the enterprise; and
(v) Providing good working conditions and welfare services to the employees.
- Office Management
The concept of management when applied to office is called ‘office management’. Office management is the technique of planning, coordinating and controlling office activities with a view to achieve common business objectives. One of the functions of management is to organize the office work in such a way that it helps the management in attaining its goals. It works as a service department for other departments.
The success of a business depends upon the efficiency of its administration. The efficiency of the administration depends upon the information supplied to it by the office. The volume of paper work in office has increased manifold in these days due to industrial revolution, population explosion, increased interference by government and complexities of taxation and other laws.
Harry H. Wylie defines office management as “the manipulation and control of men, methods, machines and material to achieve the best possible results—results of the highest possible quality with the expenditure of least possible effect and expense, in the shortest practicable time, and in a manner acceptable to the top management.”