Principles and Techniques of Directing
Principles of Directing
- Maximum Individual Contribution
One of the main principles of directing is the contribution of individuals. Management should adopt such directing policies that motivate the employees to contribute their maximum potential for the attainment of organizational goals.
- Harmony of Objectives
Sometimes there is a conflict between the organizational objectives and individual objectives. For example, the organization wants profits to increase and to retain its major share, whereas, the employees may perceive that they should get a major share as a bonus as they have worked really hard for it.
Here, directing has an important role to play in establishing harmony and coordination between the objectives of both the parties.
- Unity of Command
This principle states that a subordinate should receive instructions from only one superior at a time. If he receives instructions from more than one superiors at the same time, it will create confusion, conflict, and disorder in the organization and also he will not be able to prioritize his work.
- Appropriate Direction Technique
Among the principles of directing, this one states that appropriate direction techniques should be used to supervise, lead, communicate and motivate the employees based on their needs, capabilities, attitudes and other situational variables.
- Managerial Communication
According to this principle, it should be seen that the instructions are clearly conveyed to the employees and it should be ensured that they have understood the same meaning as was intended to be communicated.
- Use of Informal Organization
Within every formal organization, there exists an informal group or organization. The manager should identify those groups and use them to communicate information. There should be a free flow of information among the seniors and the subordinates as an effective exchange of information are really important for the growth of an organization.
Managers should possess a good leadership quality to influence the subordinates and make them work according to their wish. It is one of the important principles of directing.
- Follow Through
As per this principle, managers are required to monitor the extent to which the policies, procedures, and instructions are followed by the subordinates. If there is any problem in implementation, then the suitable modifications can be made.
Techniques of Directing
There are various elements involved in direction are as follows-
- Issuing Orders and Instructions to Subordinates
The first and foremost element of direction is to issue orders and instructions which are considered an essential step in the process of directing subordinates. An order is a fundamental tool for getting things done. Therefore, the orders and instructions reflect managerial decisions and initiate action on the part of subordinates. Orders may be general or specific, formal or informal, written or oral.
Thus an order should serve the following characteristics:
- The order should be clear and complete.
- It should be reasonable and attainable.
- The order must be in tune with the various other objectives of the organization and also for the interests of the subordinates.
- All order should follow the chain of command.
- Face-to-face suggestions are preferable to long distance orders.
- Supervision in an overall manner
It refers to monitor the progress of routine work of one’s subordinates and guiding them properly. Supervision is an important element of the directing function of management. Supervision has an important feature which includes face-to-face interaction between the supervisor and his subordinates.
It involves direct personal contact with subordinates. Supervision converts plans into action. Thus supervision is considered as an essential step in the process of directing.
- Motivating Subordinates
The term motivation can be referred to as that process which excites people to work for the attainment of the desired objective. Among the various factors of production, it is only the human factor which is dynamic and provides mobility to other physical resources.
Thus, in an overall sense, it becomes essential so as to motivate the human resources so as to keep the employees dynamic, aware and eager to perform their duty. Both the monetary and non-monetary incentives are given to the employees for motivation. Thus through motivation, the employees will perform better. Hence, it will help to achieve the organizational goals and objectives.
- Providing Leadership
The term Leadership defines as to influence others in such a manner as to guide them to do what the leader wants them to do. Leadership plays an important role in directing. Only through this leadership skill, a manager can develop trust and zeal among his subordinates. Therefore it leads to guide and provide overall counselling to subordinates in the best way for achieving their objectives and also for the organization.
- Communicating with Subordinates
It refers to an act of transferring facts, ideas, feeling, etc. from one person to another and making him understand them. A manager has to continuously t guides and also at the same time, monitors his subordinates about what to do, how to do, and when to do various things.
Also, it is very essential to know their reactions. To do all this it becomes essential to develop effective telecommunication facilities. Therefore, the essential feature is to communicate with itself can be called by developing mutual understanding inculcates a sense of cooperation which builds an environment of coordination in the organization.
- Maintaining discipline and Rewarding Effective People
By maintaining an atmosphere of discipline and trust in the organization, the manager can easily give directions. So that the work done by his employees is in most efficient and effective manner.
In return, the employees will get a reward in the form of bonus, incentives and other perks so as to get themselves associated with the organization on a long-term basis. Therefore, this element of direction also plays a very important role in achieving overall objectives of an organization.