The buying behavior of consumer is affected by a number of factors which are generally uncontrollable. These factors are also known as determinants of consumer buying behavior. All these factors affect the buying behavior of consumer differently.
I) Cultural factors affecting consumer buying behavior:
1) Culture: culture affects a lot the consumer buying behavior. It is the family values, beliefs, perceptions and preferences affect the consumer buying behavior.
2) Subculture: the culture includes subculture in it include nationality, religious group, and communities etc. which affect the consumer behavior.
3) Social class: it means to divide the society in different social classes, the members of different social class has different likings.
II) Social factor affecting consumer behavior:
1) Family: the members of family also affect the buying behavior of consumer. Family includes of:
- Influencer: The person who senses the need to buy a product.
- Decider: The person who takes final decision to buy the product.
- User: The person who finally uses the product.
2) Reference group: family alone does not affect the consumer buying behavior but also the group outside the family also affects the consumer behavior. It includes the persons with whom we interact like friends, neighbors, co- workers etc.
3) Role and status: role played by the person in the society are so many. Like a person plays the role of son, husband, brother, father, businessman etc. in his life. So the consumer buying behavior depends upon the role played by him.
III) Personal factors affecting consumer behavior:
1) Age and life style: the consumer buying behavior changes with the change in the age. Like very small child need toys to play with them and when they grow they need games, computer etc. thus, liking of consumer changes with the age.
2) Occupation: occupation also affects the consumer behavior to buy the goods. Like an worker needs simple clothes while his boss needs expensive designer suits to wear.
3) Income: the income also affects the consumer buying behavior because if the person is rich he can buy anything which he wants to buy but for a poor person it is not be easy to buy the things which are beyond his pocket.
4) Life style: it is the way of living of the person. Like some people like luxury livings while some in simple living.
5) Personality: personality includes extrovert or introvert which also affects the consumer buying behavior.
IV) Psychological factors affecting consumer behavior:
1) Motivation: when the buyer’s need is raised to a particular level they become the motives which mean “I want to achieve this” which ultimately affect the consumer buying behavior.
2) Perception: this is how the consumer receives, selects and organizes the information which helps him in buying the goods.
3) Learning: learning experience is helpful in affecting consumer buying behavior.
4) Beliefs and attitude: belief means the opinion or mind set relating to a particular object; attitude means the feeling of buyer towards the object. So the marketer should keep in mind the beliefs and attitude of the consumer.
Thus, all these buying characteristics influence consumer buying behavior.