(1) Marginal Analysis:
This technique is also known as ‘marginal costing’. In this technique the additional revenues from additional costs are compared. The profits are considered maximum at the point where marginal revenues and marginal costs are equal.” This technique can also be used in comparing factors other than costs and revenues.
For Example: If we try to find out the optimum output of a machine, we have to vary inputs against output until the additional inputs equal the additional output. This will be the point of maximum efficiency of the machine. Modern analysis is the ‘Break-Even Point’ (BEP) which tells the management the point of production where there is no profit and no loss.
(2) Co-Effectiveness Analysis:
This analysis may be used for choosing among alternatives to identify a preferred choice when objectives are far less specific than those expressed by such clear quantities as sales, costs or profits. Koontz, O’Donnell and Weihrich have written that “Cost models may be developed do show cost estimates for each alternative and its effectiveness. Social objective may be to reduce pollution of air and water which lacks precision. Further, he has emphasised for synthesizing model i.e., combining these results, may be made to show the relationships of costs and effectiveness for each alternative.”
(3) Operations Research:
This is a scientific method of analysis of decision problems to provide the executive the needed quantitative information in making these decisions. The important purpose of this is to provide the managers with scientific basis for solving organisational problems involving the interaction of components of the organisation. This seeks to replace the process by an analytic, objective and quantitative basis based on information supplied by the system in operation and possibly without disturbing the operation.
This is widely used in modern business organisations. For Example – (a) Inventory models are used to control the level of inventory, (b) Linear Programming for allocation of work among individuals in the organisation.
Further, some theories have also been propounded by eminent writers of management to analyse the problems and to take decisions. Sequencing theory helps the management to determine the sequence of particular operations. Queuing theory, Games theory, Reliability theory and Marketing theory are also important tools of operations research which can be used by the management to analyse the problems and take decisions.
(4) Linear Programming:
It is a technique applicable in areas like production planning, transportation, warehouse location and utilisation of production and warehousing facilities at an overall minimum cost. It is based on the assumption that there exists a linear relationship between variables and that the limits of variations can be ascertained.
It is a method used for determining the optimum combination of limited resources to achieve a given objective. It involves maximisation or maximisation of a linear function of various primary variables known as objective function subject to a set of some real or assumed restrictions known as constraints.