The information relating to the changes in current natured accounts between two periods of time presented in the form of a statement is what we call the schedule/statement of changes in working capital.
Preparing the schedule/statement of changes in working capital requires us to present the information relating to the current area of the balance sheets pertaining to the two periods in the format given below and deriving and presenting the changes within them.
In the preparation of funds flow statement, the first step is to find out the net amount of increase or decrease of working capital, as increase in net working capital is a use of funds and decrease in net working capital is a source. Since net working capital is excess of current assets over current liabilities, the increase or decrease in the net working capital can be found out by comparing the current assets and current liabilities contained in the balance sheets of two following dates. For this purpose, a statement is prepared which is called statement or schedule of changes in net working capital. This statement helps to identify the change in position of the working capital. While preparing the statement of changes in working capital, the following points are taken into account.
* Increase in current assets, increase in net working capital
* Decrease in current assets, decrease in net working capital
* Increase in current liabilities, decrease in net working capital
* Decrease in current liabilities, increase in net working capital
The statement or schedule of changes in net working capital can be prepared by using one of the following forms.
Using only current account
The statement or schedule of changes in net working capital can be prepared by using only current account,viz. account of current assets and current liabilities. While preparing the statement, the current assets and current liabilities of the previous year are compared with those of the current year and changes (increase or decrease) therein are determined. If the total of increase is more than that of decrease, there is an increase in net working capital, or vice verse.
Using both current and non-current accounts
The statement or schedule of changes in net working capital can also be prepared by using both current as well as non-current accounts. Current account is the account of current assets and current liabilities and non-current account of non-current assets and non-current liabilities and owner’s equity. Increase in an item of current assets or decrease in an item of current liabilities from previous year to this year is debited, while increase in an item of current liabilities or decrease in an item of current assets is credited to current account. On other hand, increase in an item of non-current assets or decrease in an item of non-current liabilities from the previous year to this year is debited, while increase in an item of non-current liabilities and owner’s equity and decrease in an item of non-current assets is credited to non-current account.
The preparation of statement of changes in networking capital under this method is advantageous as compared to the previous method as it is easy to prepare funds flow statement there from.
|Share capital||150000||180000||Land and building||85000||85000|
|Profit and loss a/c Loans||35000||42000||Plant and machinery||54000||70000|
|Bills payable||3000||1000||Bills receivable||5000||2000|
The solution is as follows:
Working capital= current assets – current liabilities
Changes in working capital
|Particulars||2004 (Rs.)||2005 (Rs.)||Incharge (Rs.)||Decharge (Rs.)|
|Increase in W.C.||34000||34000||43000||43000|
Funds Flow Statement
|Issued share capital||30000||Purchase of plant and machinery||16000|
|Loan||13000||Increase in working capital||34000|
|Funds from operations||7000|
Funds from operations = 42000-35000 = 7000 (profit and loss a/c)
Increase in working capital = 82000-48000 = 34000