SDGS1 No Poverty
SDG 1 aims to end poverty in all its forms and dimensions, including extreme poverty, by 2030. Poverty is a complex and multifaceted issue that affects individuals, families, and communities. The goal is to ensure that all people have access to basic resources and services such as food, clean water, education, healthcare, and decent work.
Some of the specific targets under SDG 1 include:
- By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day.
- By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women, and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions.
- Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable.
- Ensure that all men and women, in particular, the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership, and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology, and financial services including microfinance.
- By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social, and environmental shocks and disasters.
SDG 1 requires the collective efforts of governments, civil society, private sector, and individuals to address poverty at all levels. Strategies to achieve SDG 1 include promoting inclusive economic growth, creating decent work opportunities, implementing social protection programs, providing access to basic services and infrastructure, empowering marginalized communities, and promoting sustainable and equitable economic development.
SDGS2 Zero Hunger
SDG 2, or Zero Hunger, is one of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) established by the United Nations in 2015. It is a global effort to end hunger, achieve food security, and improve nutrition while promoting sustainable agriculture.
The goal aims to end hunger and all forms of malnutrition by 2030, ensuring access to safe, nutritious, and sufficient food for all people. It also aims to improve agricultural productivity and the livelihoods of small-scale farmers, particularly women and indigenous communities, by promoting sustainable agricultural practices, investing in rural infrastructure, and increasing access to markets and credit.
The targets under SDG 2 are:
- By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round.
- By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women, and older persons.
- By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment.
- By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality.
- By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed.
- Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular least developed countries.
SDG 2 recognizes that hunger and malnutrition are complex problems that require a multi-faceted approach, involving not only the agricultural sector but also the health, education, and social protection sectors. It also acknowledges the importance of sustainable agricultural practices in ensuring long-term food security, protecting biodiversity, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
Achieving SDG 2 will require a combination of policies and investments at the national and international levels, including increased public and private investment in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, and access to markets and credit for small-scale farmers. It will also require policies that address the root causes of hunger and malnutrition, including poverty, inequality, and conflict.
SDGS3 Good Health and Well-Being
Good Health and Well-Being aims to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. It recognizes that health is a fundamental human right and an essential component of sustainable development.
The targets under this goal are:
- By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births.
- By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births.
- By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases.
- By 2030, reduce by one-third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being.
- Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol.
- By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents.
- By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes.
- Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all.
- By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination.
- Strengthen the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries, as appropriate.
SDGS4 Quality Education
SDG 4 aims to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all. It recognizes the importance of education as a fundamental right and a key driver of sustainable development.
Targets of SDG 4:
- By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes.
- By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary education so that they are ready for primary education.
- By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university.
- By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship.
- By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations.
- By 2030, ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy.
- By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including among others through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.
- Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non-violent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all.
- By 2020, substantially expand globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other developing countries.
- By 2030, substantially increase the supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island developing States.
Importance of SDG 4:
Education is a key driver of sustainable development and a fundamental human right. It is essential for poverty eradication, reducing inequality, promoting economic growth, and achieving many other development goals. Education also plays a critical role in promoting health and well-being, reducing child mortality, empowering women and girls, and fostering peaceful and inclusive societies.
Achieving SDG 4 is therefore crucial for achieving all other SDGs, as it provides the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for individuals and communities to contribute to sustainable development. Moreover, education is a transformative force that can break the cycle of poverty and exclusion and empower people to build better lives for themselves and their communities.
Challenges in achieving SDG 4:
Despite significant progress in expanding access to education in recent decades, many challenges remain in achieving SDG 4. Some of the key challenges include:
- Lack of access to education: Millions of children and youth still do not have access to quality education, particularly in low-income countries and in conflict-affected areas.
- Poor quality of education: Even when children have access to education, the quality of education is often poor, leading to low learning outcomes and limited opportunities for further education or employment.
- Gender disparities: Girls are still more likely than boys to be excluded from education, particularly in certain regions and at the secondary and tertiary levels.
- Inadequate infrastructure and resources: Many schools lack the necessary infrastructure, materials, and resources to provide quality education, particularly in rural areas.
SDGS5 Gender Equality
SDG 5, or the 5th goal of the Sustainable Development Goals, is “Gender Equality”. It aims to achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls, and it has a set of specific targets to achieve this goal by 2030.
Some of the key targets of SDG 5 include:
- End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere.
- Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in public and private spheres, including trafficking, sexual and other types of exploitation.
- Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation.
- Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family.
- Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life.
- Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences.
Achieving gender equality is not only a matter of social justice, but it is also essential for sustainable development. Women and girls have the right to live free from violence, discrimination, and poverty, and they should have equal access to education, healthcare, and economic opportunities. Empowering women and girls can also lead to positive outcomes for families, communities, and economies, and contribute to achieving other sustainable development goals.
Governments, civil society, private sector, and individuals all have a role to play in achieving SDG 5. Some of the key actions that can be taken include strengthening laws and policies to protect women’s rights, promoting women’s leadership and participation, investing in girls’ education and health, and engaging men and boys as allies for gender equality.
SDGS6 Clean Water and Sanitation
SDG 6 aims to ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. The goal has several targets to be achieved by 2030, including:
- Universal access to safe and affordable drinking water: The target is to ensure everyone has access to safe and affordable drinking water by improving water quality, increasing water supply, and promoting water conservation.
- End open defecation and provide access to sanitation: The target is to provide everyone with access to sanitation facilities, end open defecation, and improve hygiene practices to prevent waterborne diseases.
- Increase water-use efficiency and ensure freshwater supplies: The target is to increase the efficiency of water use in agriculture, industry, and domestic sectors to ensure sustainable freshwater supplies.
- Increase water quality and restore freshwater ecosystems: The target is to improve water quality by reducing pollution, increasing wastewater treatment, and protecting freshwater ecosystems.
- Increase cooperation on water-related issues: The target is to increase international cooperation to support developing countries in their efforts to improve water and sanitation.
Achieving SDG 6 is crucial for improving the health and well-being of individuals and communities, reducing poverty, promoting economic growth, and protecting the environment. It requires a comprehensive approach that includes improving infrastructure, promoting sustainable water management practices, enhancing water governance, and ensuring community participation and empowerment.