SDG 7 is “Affordable and Clean Energy”
SDG 7 is “Affordable and Clean Energy”. It is one of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) established by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015, as part of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
The goal aims to ensure universal access to reliable, affordable, and modern energy services, increase the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix, and improve energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy.
The specific targets under SDG 7 include:
- By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable, and modern energy services
- By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix
- By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency
- By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency, and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology
Access to affordable and clean energy is critical for sustainable development, poverty eradication, and improved health and well-being. It also has important implications for climate change, as the energy sector is the largest contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. SDG 7 recognizes the need for a transition to a low-carbon energy system that is both environmentally sustainable and socially inclusive.
SDG 8 (Sustainable Development Goal 8)
SDG 8 (Sustainable Development Goal 8) is part of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by United Nations (UN) member states in 2015. SDG 8 aims to promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment, and decent work for all. It recognizes the importance of economic growth and job creation in reducing poverty and promoting social development, while also emphasizing the need to ensure that growth is sustainable and benefits all members of society, including marginalized and vulnerable groups.
The specific targets of SDG 8 include:
- Sustained economic growth: Achieving higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological upgrading, and innovation, including through a focus on high-value added and labour-intensive sectors.
- Decent work for all: Ensuring full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value.
- Reduction in informal employment: Reducing the proportion of informal employment in the non-agricultural sector through formalization and promoting the rights of workers.
- Increased resource efficiency: Improving resource efficiency in consumption and production and reducing ecological footprint while enhancing economic, social, and environmental outcomes.
- Sustainable tourism: Developing and implementing policies to promote sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products.
- Support for entrepreneurship: Encouraging entrepreneurship and job creation by providing access to financial services and promoting the development of micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs).
- Protection of labour rights: Ensuring the protection of labour rights and promoting safe and secure working environments for all workers.
- Reduction of youth unemployment: Reducing the proportion of youth not in employment, education, or training.
- International cooperation: Increasing aid for trade support for developing countries, particularly least developed countries, and enhancing the share of developing countries in global exports.
SDG 8 is important because it recognizes the critical role that economic growth and decent work play in promoting social development and reducing poverty. However, it also emphasizes the need for this growth to be sustainable and inclusive, ensuring that all members of society benefit. Achieving SDG 8 will require a range of policies and investments, including measures to support entrepreneurship, promote formal employment, enhance resource efficiency, and support international trade.
SDG 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
SDG 9 is one of the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations in 2015. It focuses on building resilient infrastructure, promoting inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and fostering innovation. The goal recognizes the importance of infrastructure development, technological innovation, and industrialization for sustainable development and poverty reduction.
Targets of SDG 9 include:
- Developing quality, reliable, sustainable, and resilient infrastructure, including transportation systems, water and sanitation facilities, energy systems, and information and communication technology (ICT) networks.
- Promoting inclusive and sustainable industrialization and fostering innovation, including supporting domestic technology development and enhancing research and development capabilities.
- Increasing access to financial services and markets for small and medium-sized enterprises, and encouraging entrepreneurship, creativity, and innovation.
- Upgrading and modernizing infrastructure and industries to make them more resource-efficient, sustainable, and climate-resilient.
- Enhancing international cooperation and technology transfer to developing countries to support their sustainable industrialization and infrastructure development.
The importance of SDG 9 cannot be overstated. Infrastructure development is essential for economic growth and poverty reduction, as it provides access to basic services such as energy, water, and transportation. Inclusive and sustainable industrialization, on the other hand, can create jobs and boost economic growth, while fostering innovation can lead to new products and services that can improve people’s lives.
To achieve SDG 9, countries must invest in infrastructure development and modernization, promote innovation and entrepreneurship, and enhance technology transfer and international cooperation. This requires strong public-private partnerships, supportive policies and regulations, and adequate financial resources. By working towards SDG 9, countries can create a more sustainable and equitable future for all.
SDG 10: Reduced Inequalities
SDG 10 aims to reduce inequalities in income, opportunities, and access to resources and services among individuals and groups, both within and among countries. The goal recognizes that inequality can undermine social and economic development, and hinder progress towards other SDGs.
Some of the key targets of SDG 10 include:
- Reduce income inequalities: By promoting policies, such as progressive taxation, labor rights, and social protection measures, that aim to reduce inequalities in income and wealth.
- Empower and promote social, economic, and political inclusion: By ensuring that everyone, regardless of their gender, age, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion, or economic or other status, can participate fully in society and access resources and opportunities.
- Ensure equal opportunities and reduce inequalities in outcomes: By ensuring that all individuals have access to quality education, healthcare, and other essential services, and that they can participate in economic and political decision-making processes.
- Adopt policies to promote social, economic, and political inclusion of marginalized and disadvantaged groups: By focusing on groups that are particularly vulnerable to discrimination and exclusion, such as women, children, youth, indigenous peoples, migrants, refugees, and people with disabilities.
- Monitor and reduce inequalities in and among countries: By tracking progress on reducing inequalities, particularly in relation to income and wealth, and promoting policies that aim to reduce disparities both within and among countries.
SDG 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities
SDG 11 aims to make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable. The goal recognizes that cities are the epicenters of economic growth and innovation, but they are also responsible for a large share of greenhouse gas emissions and resource consumption. Therefore, it is crucial to adopt sustainable urbanization strategies that integrate environmental, social, and economic objectives.
Targets of SDG 11:
- By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums
- By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons
- By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries
- Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage
- By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations
- By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality, municipal and other waste management
- By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities
- Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning
SDG 11 focuses on creating sustainable, inclusive, and resilient cities and communities that provide safe, affordable, and accessible housing, transportation, and public spaces. The goal also emphasizes the importance of integrating the needs and rights of vulnerable groups, such as women, children, the elderly, and people with disabilities, in urban planning and development. SDG 11 also aims to reduce the environmental impact of cities by promoting sustainable waste management, improving air quality, and promoting green and public spaces. Achieving SDG 11 requires the cooperation and coordination of multiple stakeholders, including local governments, private sector, civil society, and citizens.
SDG 12: Responsible Consumption and Production
SDG 12 is one of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations in 2015. It aims to ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns worldwide. This goal addresses the need to promote the efficient use of resources, reduce waste generation, and encourage sustainable lifestyles and production practices.
Some of the targets under SDG 12 include:
- Encouraging sustainable consumption patterns by reducing food waste, promoting sustainable procurement practices, and supporting green public procurement.
- Encouraging sustainable production practices by improving resource efficiency and promoting the use of sustainable technologies.
- Reducing the amount of waste generated through prevention, reduction, recycling, and reuse, as well as promoting environmentally sound management of waste.
- Encouraging businesses and industries to adopt sustainable practices, such as eco-design, life-cycle assessment, and reporting on sustainability performance.
- Encouraging the development and adoption of sustainable tourism practices that create jobs and reduce environmental impacts.
To achieve SDG 12, various stakeholders, including governments, the private sector, and civil society organizations, need to collaborate and adopt sustainable practices. It requires a shift towards more sustainable consumption and production patterns that promote economic, social, and environmental sustainability. This shift can lead to a more sustainable future, with reduced waste, improved resource efficiency, and reduced environmental impacts.
SDG 13: Climate Action
SDG 13 is one of the Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the United Nations in 2015. The goal aims to take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts. Climate change is one of the biggest challenges facing the world today, and it is expected to have significant impacts on the environment, economy, and society. The goal focuses on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, increasing climate resilience, and promoting sustainable development.
Targets of SDG 13:
- Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries.
- Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies, and planning.
- Improve education, awareness-raising, and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction, and early warning.
- Implement the commitment undertaken by developed-country parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible.
- Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth, and local and marginalized communities.
Progress towards achieving SDG 13:
Despite some progress, the world is not on track to meet SDG 13 targets. Global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases have continued to rise, and the impacts of climate change are becoming more severe. However, there have been some positive developments, such as the Paris Agreement, which was adopted in 2015 and aims to limit global warming to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.
In order to achieve SDG 13 targets, it is necessary to take urgent and ambitious action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, promote sustainable development, and increase resilience to climate change. This requires strong political leadership, international cooperation, and the engagement of all stakeholders, including governments, businesses, civil society, and individuals.
SDG 14: Life Below Water
SDG 14 aims to “Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development”. This goal recognizes the critical role that the oceans play in maintaining the health of the planet and in providing food security, livelihoods, and economic growth for millions of people around the world. However, oceans are facing multiple challenges including overfishing, pollution, and climate change, which threaten their health and the services they provide.
The targets under this goal include:
- By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, particularly from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution.
- By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans.
- Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels.
- By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics.
- By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information.
- By 2030, increase the economic benefits to Small Island Developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism.
- Increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology, taking into account the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology, in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries, in particular small island developing States and least developed countries.
The successful implementation of SDG 14 is vital for achieving many of the other SDGs, particularly those related to poverty reduction, food security, and climate action.
SDG 15: Life on Land
SDG 15 aims to protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, halt and reverse land degradation, and halt biodiversity loss. Some of the key targets under this goal are:
- By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration, and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains, and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements.
- By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and increase afforestation and reforestation globally.
- By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought, and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world.
- By 2020, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development.
- Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity, and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species.
- Promote fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to such resources, as internationally agreed.
Achieving SDG 15 requires cooperation and coordination among governments, civil society organizations, and other stakeholders. It also requires effective policies and governance structures, as well as the participation of local communities and indigenous peoples. Additionally, it requires investments in conservation, restoration, and sustainable management of forests, wetlands, mountains, and other ecosystems, as well as the implementation of measures to combat desertification, land degradation, and biodiversity loss.
SDG16: Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions
SDG 16 stands for Sustainable Development Goal 16, which is one of the 17 goals established by the United Nations to achieve sustainable development globally. It aims to promote peaceful and inclusive societies, provide access to justice for all, and build effective, accountable, and inclusive institutions at all levels.
SDG 16 has ten targets, which include reducing violence and promoting peaceful and inclusive societies, reducing corruption and bribery, ensuring access to justice for all, building effective and accountable institutions, promoting responsive, inclusive, and participatory decision-making, and ensuring public access to information and protection of fundamental freedoms.
The targets of SDG 16 are essential for achieving sustainable development, as they aim to ensure that societies are peaceful, inclusive, and just, with institutions that are transparent and accountable to their citizens. The goals are also critical in ensuring that all people have access to justice and that their human rights are protected.
SDG 17: Partnerships for the Goals
SDG 17 is the 17th and final goal of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015. This goal focuses on the importance of partnerships in achieving the other 16 SDGs.
The aim of SDG 17 is to promote and strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development. This goal recognizes that achieving the SDGs requires partnerships between governments, civil society, the private sector, and other stakeholders.
The targets of SDG 17 are:
- Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection.
- Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments, including the commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 percent of gross national income for official development assistance (ODA/GNI) to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20 percent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries.
- Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources.
- Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief, and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries to reduce debt distress.
- Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries.
- Enhance North-South, South-South, and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology, and innovation and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, particularly at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism.
- Promote the development, transfer, dissemination, and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favorable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed.
- Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology, and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular, information and communications technology.
- Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the sustainable development goals, including through North-South, South-South, and triangular cooperation.
- Promote a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory, and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization, including the conclusion of negotiations under its Doha Development Agenda.
- Increase the exports of developing countries, in particular with a view to doubling the least developed countries’ share of global exports by 2020.
- Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries, consistent with World Trade Organization decisions, including by ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from least developed countries are transparent and simple, and contribute to facilitating market access.
- Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and policy coherence.
- Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development.
- Respect each country’s policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development.
- Enhance the global partnership for sustainable development, complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the achievement of the sustainable development goals in all countries, in particular, developing countries.
- Encourage and promote effective public, public-private, and civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships.