Context of Mediation

Mediation is an ADR method where a neutral and impartial third party, the mediator, facilitates dialogue in a structured multi-stage process to help parties reach a conclusive and mutually satisfactory agreement. A mediator assists the parties in identifying and articulating their own interests, priorities, needs and wishes to each other. Mediation is a “peaceful” dispute resolution tool that is complementary to the existing court system and the practice of arbitration.

Arbitration and mediation both promote the same ideals, such as access to justice, a prompt hearing, fair outcomes and reduced congestion in the courts. Mediation, however, is a voluntary and non-binding process – it is a creative alternative to the court system. Mediation often is successful because it offers parties the rare opportunity to directly express their own interests and anxieties relevant to the dispute. In addition, mediation provides parties with the opportunity to develop a mutually satisfying outcome by creating solutions that are uniquely tailored to meet the needs of the particular parties. A mediator is a neutral and impartial person; mediators do not decide or judge, but instead becomes an active driver during the negotiation between the parties. A mediator uses specialized communication techniques and negotiation techniques to assist the parties in reaching optimal solutions.

Mediation is a structured process with a number of procedural stages in which the mediator assists the parties in resolving their disputes. The mediator and the parties follow a specific set of protocols that require everyone involved to be working together. This process permits the mediator and disputants to focus on the real problems and actual difficulties between the parties. Moreover, the parties are free to express their own interests and needs through an open dialogue in a less adversarial setting than a courtroom. The main aim of mediation is to assist people in dedicating more time and attention to the creation of a voluntary, functional and durable agreement. The parties themselves posses the power to control the process- they reserve the right to determine the parameters of the agreement. In mediation, the parties also reserve the right to stop anytime and refer a dispute to the court system or perhaps arbitration.

Generally, an agreement reached through mediation specifies time periods for performance and is customarily specific, measurable, achievable, and realistic. It is advisable for the parties to put their agreement in writing to create tangible evidence that they accomplished something together. The written agreement reminds the parties of their newly achieved common ground and helps to prevent arguments and misunderstandings afterward. Most importantly, a written agreement provides a clear ending point to the mediation process. The agreement binds the parties contractually. In case of disputes concerning compliance with the mediated agreement (e.g., whether a party carries out an agreement) or implementation of a mediated agreement (e.g., disputes concerning the precise terms for carrying out an agreement), the agreement is enforceable as a contract, as it would be in cases of the non-fulfilment of any ordinary contractual provision. Enforceability is necessary for mediation, as an ADR process, to possess any legal strength or to impose any liability on the parties. It should be noted that, in the United States, compliance with mediated settlement agreements is high because the parties, themselves, create the terms of the settlement agreement. Thus, enforcement proceedings are relatively rare because the parties voluntarily carry out their own agreements.

Generally, choosing arbitration or mediation is attractive to parties because they get to participate in these proceeding more directly than they would in a courtroom or in a litigated dispute proceeding. However in arbitration, the arbitrator still makes the final determinations of fault and compensation, and the parties must accept those decisions as though they were made by a judge. Also, an arbitration proceeding is governed by formal rules and the role of parties’ attorneys is still central to the representation of their interests. With a mediator’s help, the parties are increasingly empowered to participate directly in the process and determine the outcome of their own dispute, thus regulating and protecting their own interests.

Another important difference between arbitration and mediation exists in regards to choosing the neutral party. In choosing an arbitrator, the parties seek to select an individual that possesses particular legal skills, knowledge and competence. With the exception of non-binding arbitration in Italy, the arbitrator determines that outcome of the dispute according to traditional legal principles, so the arbitrator must be highly knowledgeable in the relevant area of law. In mediation, the selection of a mediator can be made among individuals with a variety of degrees and particular experience or specialized training in the mediation of disputes. Mediators are often described as experts in the process (of mediation), although it is generally helpful to designate a mediator with some degree of subject matter knowledge as well. Ultimately, mediation is a collaborative effort by all involved, and to arrive at a satisfactory outcome, it includes the willing cooperation and respect of all parties.

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